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    hey

    for anyone who does russia and germany for paper 2- i have a few questions about things on the spec

    first- the book says something about a name changing to petrograd- what does this mean?

    also, why did so many people want to move to towns and cities during the war and just before?

    also what is stolypins repression?

    and finally what would the book mean by one of the causes of the fall of tsar " nicholas' absence at the front" ?

    if you could help i would really appreciate it

    thank you

    xxxxx
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    (Original post by chbutterfly)
    hey

    for anyone who does russia and germany for paper 2- i have a few questions about things on the spec

    first- the book says something about a name changing to petrograd- what does this mean?

    also, why did so many people want to move to towns and cities during the war and just before?

    also what is stolypins repression?

    and finally what would the book mean by one of the causes of the fall of tsar " nicholas' absence at the front" ?

    if you could help i would really appreciate it

    thank you

    xxxxx

    At the time of the Tsar the town was called Petrograd, later, after the Bolshevik revolution it became Leningrad as a mark of respect, and today [after the collapse of communism] it is called St. Petersburg.

    As for why people moved to towns and cities... I'm not 100% sure... maybe it was to do with the fact the government wanted to modernise and industrialise the country - thus needing more workers in the towns.

    Stolypin, the Tsar's first minister, believed in very strict justice. He made sure the courts were very firm with the law and thousands of criminals were hanged; the noose became known as 'Stolypin's necktie.' This strict discipline is known as Stolypin's repression.

    The sentence 'nicholas' absence at the front' seems a bit muddled to me. He went to the front which made him absent from where he oughnt to be, ruling Russia, would be more accurate. This led to him being blamed for military defeats and it left the Tsarina in charge who was disrespected by the people because she was German and because of her close relations with Rasputin. This meant the people felt discontented and rose up in popular revolution.

    Ask if I have written anything you are unsure about.
    I hope that helped
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    thank you so much

    it makes alot more sense to me now!

    also, where abouts does war communism come into it?

    do you think we need to know alot of detail about the events before the tsars abdication or is it just sort of background knowledge?

    thanks again

    have a rep

    xxxxx
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    (Original post by chbutterfly)
    thank you so much

    it makes alot more sense to me now!

    also, where abouts does war communism come into it?

    do you think we need to know alot of detail about the events before the tsars abdication or is it just sort of background knowledge?

    thanks again

    have a rep

    xxxxx

    Thanks for the rep

    War communism was the policy Lenin implemented from 1918-21. This was necessary so that the soliders and armaments could be supplied to fight the civil war, e.g. requisitioning of grain for food. The main point to learn is that is was extremely unsuccessful and the resultant drop in production led to the NEP.

    It is worth learning roughly what the structure of government under the Tsar was like - I believe a question about describing the system of government under the Tsar came up a couple of years ago, so yes, it is important to learn at least the main idea of that.
    More important are the reforms introduced by the October manifesto of that year - creation of the Duma etc.. and their effectiveness, plus the steps to revolution in 1905 and the first 1917 revolution. I wouldn't put it past the exam board to put in essay questions on them.
    Just think, if you learn them and one of the Russia questions is about the early years, under the Tsar and Provisional Government, you'll find them really easy.
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    (Original post by Kestrel_Lover_Sophie)
    Thanks for the rep

    War communism was the policy Lenin implemented from 1918-21. This was necessary so that the soliders and armaments could be supplied to fight the civil war, e.g. requisitioning of grain for food. The main point to learn is that is was extremely unsuccessful and the resultant drop in production led to the NEP.

    It is worth learning roughly what the structure of government under the Tsar was like - I believe a question about describing the system of government under the Tsar came up a couple of years ago, so yes, it is important to learn at least the main idea of that.
    More important are the reforms introduced by the October manifesto of that year - creation of the Duma etc.. and their effectiveness, plus the steps to revolution in 1905 and the first 1917 revolution. I wouldn't put it past the exam board to put in essay questions on them.
    Just think, if you learn them and one of the Russia questions is about the early years, under the Tsar and Provisional Government, you'll find them really easy.
    your welcome- thanks for the help

    ok thanks- so what would the structure of government include?

    when was the october manifesto? so the duma was uneffecive and he got rid of several because they didnt support him- is that right?

    also, how did the pertograd soviet and PG differ- because i thought kerensky was chairman of petrograd soviet as well as leader of PG- but werent they oposing groups?

    thanks again

    xxxx
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    An other point about War Communism that our teacher talked about (not really necessary but maybe useful if you get asked in detail about it).

    Some people said that they only called it 'war communism' to justify why it failed and there was so much famine, because it was implemented as an emergency system during civil war. But theres an arguement that the Bolsheviks had always planned to implement that policy whether there was a war or not, and they called it 'war communism' in retrospect to justify why it was so unsucessful.

    The main difference between War Communism and NEP is that, in War Communism the same amount of grain was taken no matter how much had been produced. So for example if you produced 10 tons, theyd take 9 and leave you with one. But if you produced 1 ton, they wouldnt take any etc. Because of that, the peasants had no real reason to produce more so there were food shortages.

    Under NEP, they were allowed to sell their surplus (which was taxed) so it meant harder-working peasants were actually rewarded.

    Other stuff bout NEP, is that allowed small shops and factories to be privately owned and they could make profit, but major industries such as steel or coal were still owned by the Bolsheviks.

    It was good for economic recovery and production of almost everything went up but it was unpopular with hardline communists because it was a turn away from communist ideaology.
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    Petrograd Soviet was different to the PG. Basically the PG became unpopular because they didnt end the war, or get food into the towns, or let the peasants take land. So the Petrograd Soviet (which contained Bolsheviks) became more popular and powerful. It was run by workers etc, and I think it was led by Trotsky.
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    (Original post by chbutterfly)
    your welcome- thanks for the help

    ok thanks- so what would the structure of government include?

    when was the october manifesto? so the duma was uneffecive and he got rid of several because they didnt support him- is that right?

    also, how did the pertograd soviet and PG differ- because i thought kerensky was chairman of petrograd soviet as well as leader of PG- but werent they oposing groups?

    thanks again

    xxxx
    Ok,
    Structure of the Tsarist government was an autocracy, meaning Nicholas alone hold all the power and believed he was God's chosen representative on earth. The church was also quite powerful as were members of the aristocracy. The peasants owned nearly nothing and had no power. The industrial workers were also extremely poor and worked in harsh and dangerous conditions.

    After the 1905 revolution the October manifesto was published by the Tsar as an attempt to stay in power. It gave the people more rights, in theory, which pleased the middle classes and workers who then stopped rioting. It was a series of compromises to the Tsar's power.

    The Duma was an elected parliament but wielded no real power and the Tsar did not have to take their advice if he did not want to. He disbanded the first few Duma's because they proposed ideas he did not agree with.

    The Provisional Government was formed from most of the last Duma when the Tsar abdicated. The Petrograd Soviet was like todays Trade Unions - it was intended to represent the industrial workers' rights. It had control of the army and had to ratify any law the Duma wanted passed.

    Kerensky was leader of the Prov. Gov. and also Vice-chairman[?] of the Soviet. This was an exemption to the usual rule as normally the leaders of the Soviet were banned from working in the Prov. Gov.

    They were opposing groups in some ways because the Soviet had a very strong Bolshevik influence, however they collaberated to form a government.
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    thanks again so much for the help

    ok so the soviet was part of the government then?

    xxxx
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    (Original post by chbutterfly)
    thanks again so much for the help

    ok so the soviet was part of the government then?

    xxxx
    Yes, it was like a two tier government a bit like we have the House of Lords which has to agree to new laws, so the Soviet had to pass the Duma's laws.

    No problem with the help - I hope the exam goes well for everybody!
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    (Original post by mmanj)
    An other point about War Communism that our teacher talked about (not really necessary but maybe useful if you get asked in detail about it).

    Some people said that they only called it 'war communism' to justify why it failed and there was so much famine, because it was implemented as an emergency system during civil war. But theres an arguement that the Bolsheviks had always planned to implement that policy whether there was a war or not, and they called it 'war communism' in retrospect to justify why it was so unsucessful.

    The main difference between War Communism and NEP is that, in War Communism the same amount of grain was taken no matter how much had been produced. So for example if you produced 10 tons, theyd take 9 and leave you with one. But if you produced 1 ton, they wouldnt take any etc. Because of that, the peasants had no real reason to produce more so there were food shortages.

    Under NEP, they were allowed to sell their surplus (which was taxed) so it meant harder-working peasants were actually rewarded.

    Other stuff bout NEP, is that allowed small shops and factories to be privately owned and they could make profit, but major industries such as steel or coal were still owned by the Bolsheviks.

    It was good for economic recovery and production of almost everything went up but it was unpopular with hardline communists because it was a turn away from communist ideaology.

    thank you

    so why were industries owned by the bolsheviks?

    also, could you please explain where the july days come in relation to the kornilov affair etc?

    xxxx
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    The nationalisation of industries was part of the general communist philosophy. The idea was that individuals wouldnt profit out of owning factories, but the government would run them on behalf of the people. Thats kind of why NEP was unpopular on the Bolsheviks, because it went back a bit on the communist ideas of the state running everything.

    The July Days came before the Kornilov affair. It was when Bolsheviks protested against the PG because of the war. Kerensky managed to subside the protests by producing evidence showing that Lenin had been helped by the Germans. Basically at this point Kerensky was barely keeping control, with the Petrograd Soviet/Bolsheviks gaining power
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    (Original post by mmanj)
    The nationalisation of industries was part of the general communist philosophy. The idea was that individuals wouldnt profit out of owning factories, but the government would run them on behalf of the people. Thats kind of why NEP was unpopular on the Bolsheviks, because it went back a bit on the communist ideas of the state running everything.

    The July Days came before the Kornilov affair. It was when Bolsheviks protested against the PG because of the war. Kerensky managed to subside the protests by producing evidence showing that Lenin had been helped by the Germans. Basically at this point Kerensky was barely keeping control, with the Petrograd Soviet/Bolsheviks gaining power

    thanks so much this was never explained to us when we did it st school

    also, could you possibly tell me who was actually communist and who wasnt? just to make sure incase i start writing about completely the wrong beliefs!

    xxxxx
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    K, so originally under Tsar Nicholas, it was an autocracy with him having complete control. Then in the first revolution, the Provisional Government was set up, they weren't communist, but the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolsheviks, basically were, and they were gaining popularity and power. Then the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government, and that was when Russia became properly Communist.

    They ended the war and eliminated their opponents as well as trying to improve worker's rights in order to secure power.

    Then you have the civil war where the Bolsheviks army (Red Guard) fought against the Whites who were made up of many different anti-Bolshevik factions. (Supporters of the Tsar, Capitalists, Mensheviks, foreign armies who wanted Russia back in the war etc).

    During that Civil War, war communism was introduced, then oblished afterwards in favour of NEP. Lenin died and then your into Stalin stuff.

    You probably knew most of that but thats just a bit of an overview of that period (sorry theres no dates, I'm a bit weak on the actual dates, need to revise them more)
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    Also the name was changed from St Petersburg to Petrograd at the start of WW1 because Petrograd sounded more Russian than Petersburg. It was part of the enthusiasm for WW1 from many Russias at the beginning of the war - everything went downhill after that though due to defeats like at Tannenburg
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    (Original post by chbutterfly)
    thanks so much this was never explained to us when we did it st school

    also, could you possibly tell me who was actually communist and who wasnt? just to make sure incase i start writing about completely the wrong beliefs!

    xxxxx
    The communists were the Bolsheviks (Social Democrats), they consisted of Trotsky, Lenin and Stalin. The Mensheviks were also Social Democrats, but they believed that a communist revolution in Russia should be acheived with a large group of people, whereas the Bolsheviks thought a smaller group of dedicated people would make it more acheivable.
    The Tsar was not communist, and the Provisional Government were also not communist. The Petrograd and Moscow Soviets were to give the workers a say, they were set up in the 1905 revolution - they generally supported the Social Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats.
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    (Original post by Vixxen)
    The communists were the Bolsheviks (Social Democrats), they consisted of Trotsky, Lenin and Stalin. The Mensheviks were also Social Democrats, but they believed that a communist revolution in Russia should be acheived with a large group of people, whereas the Bolsheviks thought a smaller group of dedicated people would make it more acheivable.
    The Tsar was not communist, and the Provisional Government were also not communist. The Petrograd and Moscow Soviets were to give the workers a say, they were set up in the 1905 revolution - they generally supported the Social Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats.
    thank you so much for that

    but when does stalin come into this? wasnt he dead?

    also, is this right- kerensky lead the PG, trotsky the soviets, lenin the bolsheviks? or not?

    thank again

    xxxx
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    (Original post by chbutterfly)
    thank you so much for that

    but when does stalin come into this? wasnt he dead?

    also, is this right- kerensky lead the PG, trotsky the soviets, lenin the bolsheviks? or not?

    thank again

    xxxx
    Not quite... I've written out a basic timeline of who was in power:

    Tsar rules as autocrat
    February 1917 revolution
    Provisional Government + Soviet
    October/November 1917 revolution
    Bolshevik party takeover under Lenin
    1923 - Lenin's death
    1924-9 Leadership contest for control
    1929 - Stalin succeeds Lenin as leader of Communist government
    Stalin is leader up until end of study period.


    Kerensky led the Provisional Government, Trotsky and Lenin controlled the Bolshevik party. [Trotsky was also a military director on the Soviet but was not the leader] Once the Bolsheviks got into power Lenin became the leader of the new covernment and Trotsky led the Red Army [Communist military force] After Lenin's death Trotsky was expected to succeed him but he was driven out of the party by Stalin.

    I hope that makes sense.
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    (Original post by Kestrel_Lover_Sophie)
    Not quite... I've written out a basic timeline of who was in power:

    Tsar rules as autocrat
    February 1917 revolution
    Provisional Government + Soviet
    October/November 1917 revolution
    Bolshevik party takeover under Lenin
    1923 - Lenin's death
    1924-9 Leadership contest for control
    1929 - Stalin succeeds Lenin as leader of Communist government
    Stalin is leader up until end of study period.


    Kerensky led the Provisional Government, Trotsky and Lenin controlled the Bolshevik party. [Trotsky was also a military director on the Soviet but was not the leader] Once the Bolsheviks got into power Lenin became the leader of the new covernment and Trotsky led the Red Army [Communist military force] After Lenin's death Trotsky was expected to succeed him but he was driven out of the party by Stalin.

    I hope that makes sense.

    yes it did thanks so much again!

    im panicking i havent done germany yet !!!!

    ok so do we not need to know who led the pertrograd soviet then?

    also, it says one reason for whites failure was white terror, was this just arresting, assasinating russian opposition which turned russians against them?

    xxxx
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    (Original post by chbutterfly)
    yes it did thanks so much again!

    im panicking i havent done germany yet !!!!

    ok so do we not need to know who led the pertrograd soviet then?

    also, it says one reason for whites failure was white terror, was this just arresting, assasinating russian opposition which turned russians against them?

    xxxx
    I don't think who led the Soviet is a very important bit of imformation - I don't think it was in our textbook and I certainly haven't learn it.

    The White terror was the fact that the White's army was very harsh - they would march into Russian vilages and demand food and shelter without payment and put the Bolshevik representatives in these areas to death, so the peasants hated them. This is significant because much of the army was made up of peasants and the Whites lacked peasant support, thus, a weaker army.
    It is also important to know the Bolsheviks were not liked much more. They too were harsh, but the general consensus was they were better than the Whites.
 
 
 

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