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Arghh! Cromwell is so unbelievably boring!! watch

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    Anyone else doing Cromwell? (maybe the most boring-est man ever to have lived)
    This is gonna be my worst exam by far xx
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    an ugly ******* too.
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    Yep so am I, hardly anyone is doing it.

    I found Charles II so much more interesting.

    I can't even bring myself to revise it properly because I always stop and start.

    How did you find the Charles II exam?
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    thankfully i've done my cromwell exam.. i hope to never think about him ever again!Good Luck with yours though
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    Do you mean Cromwell the roundhead or Cromwell the religious reformer in the 1530's under Henry?
    Actually they are both ridiculously dull.
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    He is butt ugly.

    Charles II is a lot more interesting than Cromwell! I know I can't revise him coz i just get so bored! And i HATE sources!

    Erm I dunno who either of them are...lol Cromwell the religious reformer in the 1640's.
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    Yeah, Cromwell sucks.


    The Pogues wrote a song including him. It's pretty offensive, but great nonetheless!

    A whole year more of the warty git.
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    I actually can't bring myself to revise it. Even though the exam is on Thurs and i haven't done any yet due to the beast of a Psychology exam I had today.
    Damn you Cromwell!!!
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    I had it last Monday...

    OCR I believe.

    Answers were NOT printed on back page
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    I'm bored of writing and it's not going in...sooo i'm going to give typing a go.

    So, after the dissolution of the Rump in 1653 (via army force), and the failure of the Nominated Assembly/Barebones Parliament, the Instrument of Government was approved by the General Councils of Officers in December 1653, after being drawn up by the "solidery but witty" John Lambert.
    The instrument appointed good old Cromwell as Lord Protector, with a parliament (that had to meet at least every 3 years and for a minimum of 5 months). There would also be a standing army of 30,000 to be jointly controlled by Lord Protector and parliament. The instrument began functioning 4 days after the dissolution of the Barebones, questioning Cromwell's claims that he knew "not one tittle" about it.
    As elections needed to be held, Cromwell had 9 months before the first sitting of the first Protectorate Parliament, thus for those 9 months he ruled by ordinance, issuing a total of 84 ordinances before Parliament even met, (including the Oath of Loyalty to the Protector, consequently resulting in 100MP's refusing to take it and the system of triers and ejectors to examine all clergy members.)
    The first Protectorate Parliament met in September 1654, it was here Cromwell outlined his 4 fundamentals; 1) Government should be carried out jointly by a single person and parliament, 2) Parliaments should not perpetuate themselves, 3) There should be liberty of conscience and 4) Control of army should be shared.
    However, parliament wasn't too keen on Cromwell (shown by the refusual of 100MP's to take the Oath of Loyalty). The parliament claimed the dismissal of the Rump was unlawful, and demanded the army be reduced from 52,000 to the 30,000 stipulated in the Instrument of Government, aswell as claiming the council of state contained too many army officers (infact the majority were actually civilians). Above all the parliament hated the single person rule. Thus, Cromwell's aims of achieving healing and settling (conservative) and Godly Reformation (radical) did not seem likely. Predominantly shown by parliament's attempts to restrict religious toleration by trying to limit liberty of conscience by banning various religious beliefs that were to threaten the social discipline, referring to Cromwell's progress as "damnable hereisies", and by blocking the monthly assessment tax that funded the army, aswell as refusing to ratify any of Cromwell's 84 ordinances. Thus, unsuprisingly, after only 5 lunar months Cromwell dissolved the first protectorate parliament in January 1655. It's also worth noting the Cony Case in November 1654, where George Cony refused to pay custom duties on imported silk on the grounds it hadn't been approved by parliament.
    In January 1655 Cromwell divided England and Wales into 11 (later 12) regions and put a Major-General in charge of each region, the rule of the Major-Generals had begun. The 3 predominant reasons for this was, 1)Penruddock's rising: March 1655, a royalist rebellion occurred, led by John Penruddock, even though it was easily put down by Major-General John Desborough (Cromwell's brother-in-law) it heavily decreased Cromwell's confidence. 2)The failure of the Western design: April 1655, Cromwell interpreted this as a sign from God that he wasn't happy, consequently Cromwell underwent a personal and spiritual crisis and resolved that Godly Reformation was now a matter of urgency. 3)Rumours of a Leveller Plot: rumours to kill Cromwell. Thus, the rule of the Major-Generals was motivated by Cromwell's fear of lack of security, and to quicken the pace of Godly Reformation.
    Each Major-General was to raise a local militia, funded by the 10% decimation tax on the Royalists, and to stamp out immoral behaviours (i.e "drunkenness and blaspheming"). Therefore unsusprising that they were so unpopular, aswell as they were seen as a lower social status than that of the local gentry whom they replaced, and weren't local to the area they governed, thus creating a feeling of "outside rule". The effectiveness of the Major-Generals varied, with some, such as Worsley being very effective (closing 200 alehouses), whereas some, such as Gough, willingly admitted they weren't up to the task. The unpopularity of the Major-Generals was again seen in the elections of the Second Protectorate Parliament, when cries of "no swordsmen, no decimators" were heard, reinforcing the view that it was a military dictatorship.
    Cromwell called the Second Protectorate Parliament in September 1656 (and finished in June 1657) because he needed funds for the war against Spain. The Council of State tried to avoid a re-run of the First Parliament by excluding 100MP's, stating they were of "not known integrity". The Second Protectorate Parliament was dominated by 2 key events; 1)The Nayler Case: James Nayler, a Quaker, who in 1656 rode into Bristol on a donkey, deliberately attempting to re-enact Jesus' entry into Jerusalem. He was arrested, MP's sentenced him to be branded, bored through the tongue and imprisioned for life. This highlighted 2 key things, the Parliaments lack of religious toleration, and that in a dispute between Parliament and Protector, there was nobody to arbitrate. It was after this that Desborough's militia bill (January 1657) was declined by Parliament, thus bringing an end to the rule of The Major-Generals (Cromwell did not willingly end their rule, but simply allowed it to lapse.) The 2nd event that dominanted the Second Protectorate Parliament was the offer of the Humble Petition and Advice in March 1657 stating, Cromwell was to take the title of King and nominate his successor, a privy council would be established, aswell as "The Other House". By accepting this Cromwell would have steadily improved his hopes of achieving his political aim of healing and settling, yet still he refused, notably due to the reaction of the army. By taking the title of King, Cromwell would have been betraying the "good old cause" for which the civil wars were fought. There was also a petition of army officers to persuade Cromwell not to accept it, aswell as Colonel Pride threatening to even shoot him if he dared to accept it. Maybe most importantly, Cromwell's closes comrades, Lambert, Fleetwood and Desborough made it clear they would withdraw their support if Cromwell accepted the Humble Petition and Advice (HPA). Undoubtadly, Cromwell would have been looking for a sign from God telling him what to do, with his strong belief in Providence, maybe he though the reaction of the army was a sign from God? Also if Cromwell had accepted the HPA he would've had to identify with the majority of England who had no desire to live Goldy lives, thus taking him further away from achieving his beloved aim of Godly Reformation. Additionally, by taking the title of King, Cromwell would have somewhat limited his power by being restricted through the traditions of King, whereas being Lord Protector there were no previous traditions or limitations restricting him. Therefore, Cromwell declined the HPA, but accepted the revised version, retaining the title of Lord Protector, essentially making him "King in all but name". Consequently, Lambert refused to accept it and was forced to resign, implying that Cromwell chose his aims of healing and settling and Godly Reformation over the influence of the army.
    The Second session of the Second Protectorate Parliament was called in January 1658, yet due to attacks on the Upper House, preominantly by the Commonwealthsmen, it was dissolved only 2 weeks later.
    Cromwell would only live for another 7 months, dying on the 3rd September 1658, having failed to achieve either healing and settling nor Godly Reformation, leaving the country as troubled and chaotic as it was 9 years earlier.

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    Why did Cromwell fail to achieve healing and settling with the Protectorate Parliaments?

    1) His contradictions, "ideological schizophrenia" - Blair Wordan
    a) He was a political conservative but a religious radical
    His radical religious aim of Godly Refomation was incompatible with his conservative political aim of healing and settling. He wanted his conservative regime to deliver radical religious reform - impossible to pursue this through a conservative Parliament.
    Parliament attacked Cromwell for his religious aims, calling them "damnable heresies" in the First Protectorate Parliament, a major cause for it's dissolution after only 5 months. The Second Protectorate Parliament showed it's intolerance through the Nayler Case, contradicting Cromwell's claime that there should be liberty of conscience.
    b) He wanted a civilian parliament but refused to give up his standing army
    Maintaining the army meant healing and settling was never going to happen. The army was feared, disliked and deemed unnecessary, also hated due it's expense (assessment tax). Also the Instrument of Government was seen as a army constituion as it was drawn up by Major-General John Lambert. First Protectorate Parliament sought to reduce army from 52,000 to 30,000 and tried to block the monthy assessment tax, a major reason for it's dissolutionment. The Major-Generals further increased anti-army feeling, unpopular due to not being local "feeling of outside rule", being of a lower social status, and imposing moral behaviours, with the addition of the decimation tax - aimed at Royalists.
    2) It was the divisions of the Protectorate
    Barry Coward argues the Protecotrate was a success (??), and that the main problems were caused by the flaws of the Instrument of Government and the HPA.
    That it was the Parliaments that ended Cromwell's chances of healing and settling

    can't be bothered to write any more on this, and don't really get it
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    To what extent was the Protectorate a military dictatorship?

    Historians have long since debated whether Cromwell was a military dictator, some adhereing to the view he was, such as Christopher Hill who describes Cromwell's regime as "sitting on bayonets and nothing else". Conversely, some, such as Woolrych state this interpretation "is misleading", and that "any attempt to fit Cromwell into the stereotype of a military dictator ultimately fails" (Barry Coward). It seems to a large extent Cromwell relied on the army as they were his apparent guarantee of the Godly Reformation, sharing his religious aims. Nonetheless, at many times during his rule Cromwell seems to sacrifice the army to meet the needs of the people, leading to the view that the Protectorate was not a military dictatorship, but certain elements of the regime were certainly influenced by the army.
    To a large extent the dismissal of the Rump supports the claim that the Protectorate was a military dictatorship. The last remnant of a legitimate military government was removed by Cromwell using military force due to it's disagreements with the army. The Rump crucially disagreed with the army on many points, predominantly it wanted to reduce the size and cost of the army, aswell as refusing to accept the heads of proposals and refusing to favour toleration of the Independent sects. It was these disagreements that led to Cromwell dissolving the Rump in April 1653, essentially supporting the claim that the Protectorate was a military dictatorship, as any opposition to the army was ultimately destroyed by military force.
    In addition, the Instrument of Government can further be used as evidence of the Protectorate as a military dictatorship, as it was created by the "solidery" Major-General John Lambert, thus incorporating the army's aims and ensuring army dominance through the retention of a large standing army (even larger than what the Instrument originally stipulated, growing from 30,000 to a massive 52,000). This huge standing army was deemed unnecessary by parliament as the Battle of Worcester had removed any threat of civil war. Furthermore, the Instrument of Government ensured the army ws paid for via the monthy Assessment tax, thus further amounting to it's disliking. Also, many viewed the army as prominent in the Council of State, seemingly controlling politics aswell. All this led to 100MP's being excluded from parliament, implying Cromwell chose the army over is parliament, further incorporating the view the Protectorate was a military dctatorship.
    After choosing the army over the First Protectorate Parliament, Cromwell began the rule of the Major-Generals in 1655. The country was divided up into 11/12 military districts, each to be governed by a Major-General, who were instructed to build a local militia and stamp out any immoral behaviours (such as "drunkenness and blaspheming".) The Major-Generals were funded by the Decimation Tax, a 10% tax royalists, thus further reigniting the divisions already so prominent in the country. The Major-Generals were also viewed highly unpopular due to their low social status, and how ther weren't local to the area, creating a feel of "outside rule". Many viewed the rule of the Major-Generals as a military dictatorshhip, as essentially it was the military that was governing the country. There was huge opposition towards the Major-Generals, predominantly shown in the elections to the Second Protectorate Parliament, when cries of "no swordsmen, no decimators" were heard, yet still Cromwell chose the military, even excluding 100MP's as they were not of "know integity" in an attempt to soften the opposition, once again reinforcing the view that no opposition to the military was allowed, thus ensuring a militay dictatorship.
    In March 1657, Cromwell was offered the Humble Petition and Advice (HPA), this was a huge opportunity for Cromwell to achieve both his conservative political aims of healing and settling aswell as his radical religious aim of Godly Reformation. Yet, he refused, notably due to the reaction of the army. There was a petition from army officers trying to persuade Cromwell not to accept it, aswell as Colonel Pride even stating he would shoot Cromwell if he accepted. Additionally, 3 of Cromwell's main supporters and loyal friends, Lambert, Fleetwood and Desborough all said they would withdraw their support if Cromwell accepted the crown, thus Cromwell declined the title of King, turning his back on maybe the one thing that would grant him his aims in favour of army support.
    However, many argue the Protectorate to not have been a military dictatorship at all. This is supported by Cromwell's support of the Rump, adhereing to his fundamental of the existence of a single ruler and a parliament. It was only after the Rump failed to achieve Cromwell's religious aims that it was dissolved. Additionally, after the dismissal of the Rump, Cromwell could have retained power by use of miliatary force, instead he turned to the Nominated Assembly, evidence of him trying to achieve stability through parliamentary means. It was only due to religious divisions from the 5th Monarchists that power was handed back to Cromwell.
    Additionally, the dismissal of the First Protectorate Parliament was due to it's refusual to abide to Cromwell's religious aims, refusing to ratify any of his 84 ordinances and trying to reject religious independence. Again, this is evidenced in the dismissal of the Second Protectorate Parliament, as The Nayler Case showed how little religious tolerance (liberty of conscience) the parliament had.
    Furthermore, claims the instrument of government induced a military regime are refuted the fact that Cromwell longed for a constitutional settlement, that "government by a single person and a parliament is a fundamental". A further fundamental of Cromwell's was that the control of the army should be shared, not the actions of a man ho wanted to rule via a military dictatorship.
    The rule of the Major-Generals was needed to secure the Republic in the wake of Penruddock's rising in March 1655, and rumours of a Leveller Plot to assassinate Cromwell, it was not intended to be a military dictatrship. Infact, Cromwell intended the rule of the Major-Generals to bring him closer to achieving his aim of Godly Reformation. Indeed, Cromwell didn't fight for the upkeep of the Major-Generals in 1657 when Desborough's militia Bill was declined by Parliament, contradicting the claim that the Protectorate was a military dictatorship, as surely if Cromwell was intending to rule by military force he would have demanded the upkeep of the rule? Instead he called the second Protectorate Parliament, and attempted once more to rule by constitutional means.
    It further seems highly reductionistic to claim the reactions of the army was the sole reason for Cromwell's refusual of the Crown. In reality it came down to many factors, arguably to the Providence of God. Cromwell was so intent on achieving Godly Reformation, yet by becoming King he would of had to side with the majority who had no desire to live Godly lives. Additionally, by accepting the title of King, Cromwell would have somewhat limited his own powers, constricting himself to the traditions and expectations of a King, whereas the Lord Protector has no such restrictions.
    In conclusion, it seems apporopiate to adhere to Barry Cowards view, that it is impossible to "stereoptype Cromwell as a military dictator", as essentially it seems he wasn't. Instead, it seems Cromwell was a man so intent on achieving Godly Reformation that he would risk everything to achieve it, inevitably the risk he took failed, resulting in him, somewhat unfairly, being branded a military dictator.
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    my friend is a descendant of cromwell
 
 
 
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