novadragon849
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Hi guys, here I have all the synoptic questions for BYA8 given by my teacher from 2002 up to june 2007. She says this list pretty much covers all the possible angles the examiners can come from, but of cause they can tweak bits and etc.

I was thinking we should do a quick brainstorm for each of the essays so come the exam on the 18th we can be more prepared and get the best marks possible.

Synoptic Questions

1. How the structure of cells is related to their function.

2. The different ways in which organisms use ATP.

3. How bacteria affect human lives.

4. The biological importance of water.

5. The transfer of energy between different organisms and between these organisms and the environment.

6. Ways in which different species of organisms differ from each other.

7. Negative Feedback and its importance in biology.

8. Condensation and hydrolysis and their importance in biology.

9. Inorganic ions include those of sodium, phosphorus and hydrogen. Describe how these and other inorganic ions are used in living organism.

10. Polymers have different structures, they also have different functions. Describe how the structures of different polymers are related to their functions.

11. Describe how nitrogen-containing substances are taken into, and metabolised in, animals and plants.

12. Carbon dioxide in organisms and ecosystems.

13. Why offspring produced by the same parents look different in appearance.

14. Cycles in Biology.

15. Describe and explain the uses of genetic engineering in Medical Science.

16. How the structure of protein is related to their function.

17. The movement of substances within living organisms.

18. The structure and function of carbohydrates.

Well there you have it.

I will start with 1.

1. How the structure of cells is related to their function.

Planning

In Animals.

Muscle Cells - mitochondria
Nerve Cells - Myelin Sheath, depolarised membrane
Epithelial Cells - Microvilli
Red Blood Cell - No nucleus
Sperm Cells - Haploid nuclues, shape
Photoreceptor Cells - Rods and cones
All Cells - Ribosomes, nucleus, protein synthesis and growth.

In Plants.

Palisade Mesophyll Cells - Chloroplasts - photosynthesis, large surface area.
Guard Cells - Stomata and functions.

In Prokaryotes.

Bacteria - Unicellular, few organelles, capsule, flagella.

That should give people plenty to write on.
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kahuna000
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thanks, very helpful!
i would only add white blood cells.

2. The different ways in which organisms use ATP.

Much the same structure as the last one...

Animals

Nerve Cells - K+/NA+ pump
Muscle cells - mitochondria, respiration which needs ATP input throughout process.
Epithelial Cells - Active Transport into a cell- NA+ Pump
Active transport

Plants

Photosynthesis
Actvive Transport

Prokaryotes
Bacteria - Flagella - propulsion...?

can't really think of any more.... any more ideas??
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Compass_girl
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(Original post by novadragon849)
Hi guys, here I have all the synoptic questions for BYA8 given by my teacher from 2002 up to june 2007. She says this list pretty much covers all the possible angles the examiners can come from, but of cause they can tweak bits and etc.

I was thinking we should do a quick brainstorm for each of the essays so come the exam on the 18th we can be more prepared and get the best marks possible.

Synoptic Questions

1. How the structure of cells is related to their function.

2. The different ways in which organisms use ATP.

3. How bacteria affect human lives.

4. The biological importance of water.

5. The transfer of energy between different organisms and between these organisms and the environment.

6. Ways in which different species of organisms differ from each other.

7. Negative Feedback and its importance in biology.

8. Condensation and hydrolysis and their importance in biology.

9. Inorganic ions include those of sodium, phosphorus and hydrogen. Describe how these and other inorganic ions are used in living organism.

10. Polymers have different structures, they also have different functions. Describe how the structures of different polymers are related to their functions.

11. Describe how nitrogen-containing substances are taken into, and metabolised in, animals and plants.

12. Carbon dioxide in organisms and ecosystems.

13. Why offspring produced by the same parents look different in appearance.

14. Cycles in Biology.

15. Describe and explain the uses of genetic engineering in Medical Science.

16. How the structure of protein is related to their function.

17. The movement of substances within living organisms.

18. The structure and function of carbohydrates.

Well there you have it.

I will start with 1.

1. How the structure of cells is related to their function.

Planning

In Animals.

Muscle Cells - mitochondria
Nerve Cells - Myelin Sheath, depolarised membrane
Epithelial Cells - Microvilli
Red Blood Cell - No nucleus
Sperm Cells - Haploid nuclues, shape
Photoreceptor Cells - Rods and cones
All Cells - Ribosomes, nucleus, protein synthesis and growth.

In Plants.

Palisade Mesophyll Cells - Chloroplasts - photosynthesis, large surface area.
Guard Cells - Stomata and functions.

In Prokaryotes.

Bacteria - Unicellular, few organelles, capsule, flagella.

That should give people plenty to write on.
ooo you have from 2002-2007 :O ...could you possibly post the 2002 and 2003 one pleaseeeeeee with the mark schemes?
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Beautiful_Plumage
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Can someone please help with the roles of water in living organisms one please? Its so blindingly obvious its difficult!

Perhaps something like U4: ADH and how it maintains correct solute potential in blood by making the DCT and collecting duct more permeable to water (thats kind of the role of water isn't it?)

Maybe transport of water and mineral ions? Oh I don't know !!!
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Biscuit90
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(Original post by Beautiful_Plumage)
Can someone please help with the roles of water in living organisms one please? Its so blindingly obvious its difficult!

Perhaps something like U4: ADH and how it maintains correct solute potential in blood by making the DCT and collecting duct more permeable to water (thats kind of the role of water isn't it?)

Maybe transport of water and mineral ions? Oh I don't know !!!
cytoplasm - where reactions occur
sweating - cooling down etc thermoregulation
habitat for animals
hydrolysis/ condensation reactions
cohesion-tension - transpiration
osmosis
turgor of cells - stomata etc, open due to water enetering potassium hypothesis thingy
reproductive medium
joints etc - movement
photosynthesis

thats all i can think of atm, if i think of more i will post it
xxx
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beckiestar
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here is my own list of all the synoptic questions for biology and human biology 2002-jan 2008. There are two papers missing so if you can fill in the gaps let me know and I will update it.

The markschemes are on their way
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Joe555
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Count me in this thread! I'll post some stuff up in a minute
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Formica
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How bacteria affect human lives:

Pathogens - food poisoning, epidemics
Food production - soy sauce, sauerkraut, cheese, yoghurt, (lactobacilli, leuconostoc etc.)
Food spoilage - putrid milk, decaying food
Vitamin production - vitamin K in the gut
Gene technology - insulin production by GM bacteria
Agriculture - nitrogen fixing bacteria helping plants produce amino acids and grow
Waste management - decomposing sewage material, compost production
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Wenzel
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I've just done #13 myself as practice.

13. Why offspring produced by the same parents look different in appearance.

Genes - Each one is specific, certain ones have an effect on phenotype; possible mutation (deletion/subsitution) could lead to a change in phenotype.
Inheritance - Meiosis during gamete formation - crossing over in prophase I; Mendels laws (Law 1 - random segregation in Anaphase I & II; Law 2 random assortment in Anaphase I & II); polygenic inheritence; genes can be recessive or dominant (resulting in a different phenotype); the randomness at fertilisation (i.e. which sperm will fertilise the egg). Could also mention co-dominance and sex linkage.
Environment - diet, temperature, amount of available nutrients & water etc.

I'm on the human biology A spec though.
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Ilaria
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any ideas what could be written for the question 'What is the importance of inorganic ions??? the only thing i can think of is hydrogen in photosynthesis/respiration. eeek

for Q7. the importance of -ve feedback i would put:
definition- departure from resting level-receptor-effector-return to resting level. A mechanism that keeps levels constant.

-Blood glucose. need to be kept stable as brain sensitive, can cause fitting and loss of consciousness at extremes.
too high-detection by Bcells-insulin-receptor proteins-extra glucose channels open-pass from blood into cells-. also enzyme pathways activated-glucose->gylcogen.
too low-detection by acells-glucagon-glycogenolysis-increase blood sugar level

-Heart rate-increased blood pressure causes swellling as excess tissue fluid produced and not returned to blood. Pressure receptors in carotid sinus transmit impulses to cardiovascular centre when bp risses. cardiovascular centre in medulla modifies rate of breating. Parasyympathetic nerve carries impulses that slow hr down. sympathetic nerve caries impulses that speed it up.

CO2- Chemoreceptors in carotid artery/aorta monitor pH of bloood for carboxylic acid when Co2 disslves in water and pH falls. Cardiovascular centre in medulla modifies rate of breathing. Sympathetic nerve transmits impulses via cardiovascular centre to SAN. change in rate of impulse production by SAN.

Ventilation-increase in rate of respiration. causes rise in blood CO2 detected by chemoreceptors. Impulses sent to respiratiory centre in medulla. Impulses sent to diaphragm and intercostal muscles. causess increase in frequency and depth of breating. lungs inflate. stretch receptors trasnsmit impulses to respiratory centre. -ve feedback inhibits impulses which cause inhilation so we breathe out.

-reapsorption of water-importatnt for maintaining water potential. blood water potential too low. osmorecetors in hyphthalmus detect- pituitary gland secretes more ADH. ADH increases permeability of collecting duct and distal tubule. causes recruitement of aquaporins. more water reabsorbed by osmosis. hypertonic urine produced.

-Thermoregulation: essential to keep optium temp for enzyme reactions.
too hot-vasodilation. shunt vessels close. lowering of hairs, pili erector muscles relax. sweating.
too cold-vasoconstriction-shivering-hair stand on end-increasing basal metabolic rate-impulses sent from hypothalmus to adrenal gland (short term) and tyroid gland(long term)

and thats everything i can think of
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Formica
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(Original post by Ilaria)
any ideas what could be written for the question 'What is the importance of inorganic ions??? the only thing i can think of is hydrogen in photosynthesis/respiration. eeek
Nerve impulses? Synaptic transmission (sending vesicles to presynaptic membrane)? Active transport? Absorption in the kidney?
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Wenzel
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9. Inorganic ions include those of sodium, phosphorus and hydrogen. Describe how these and other inorganic ions are used in living organism.

Action potential - K+/Na+ ions
Synapse - Ca2+ causing vesicles to fuse with the membrane; Cl- as an inhibitory.
Muscle contraction - Ca2+ binding with the troponin
Phosphorus - ATP/ADP+Pi; phosphocreatine; phospholipid bilayer...hmm but they're not ions.
H+ - NADH+H+; in mitochondria; photosynthesis; in red blood cells.

All I can think of.
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Joe555
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I think that would be enough to write a 1/2 an hour essay on! The time would fly. IT is 1/2 an hour you're supposed to spend on the essay isn't it? Or is it 45?
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beckiestar
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(Original post by beckiestar)
here is my own list of all the synoptic questions for biology and human biology 2002-jan 2008. There are two papers missing so if you can fill in the gaps let me know and I will update it.

The markschemes are on their way
Here are the markschemes for the questions that I posted earlier.
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tomthebum
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hey everyone

for my biology synoptic i was taught to bascially do around 4 paragraphs on different points the question may ask then have a intro/conc added on

just wondered how everyone else would go about it?
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Sky Twilight
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Are you guys actually writing out these essays for practice? Or just thinking up plans.

Not sure what to do only 2 more days left
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Nirvash
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I still haven't started my unit 6 revision... Haven't even looked at one paper!
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Wenzel
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(Original post by Sky Twilight)
Are you guys actually writing out these essays for practice? Or just thinking up plans.

Not sure what to do only 2 more days left
My teacher made us do 1 per week in class up to a couple of weeks ago. But for my own revision I just look at the questions that come up and do plans; pick out stuff I'm unclear on and revise that area.
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sinico1234
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Hi thanks for posting the synoptic questions they only had from 05-07 on the website. I had a go at question 2 is it helped.

The different ways in which organisms use ATP:

ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate - Produced by respiration of O2 and glucose. Consists of a base (adenine), a ribose sugar and three phosphate molecules. Energy released by breaking the bonds between phosphate molecules (hydrolysis)

ATP -> ADP + Pi

Active Transport - Moving ions/molecules against the concentration gradient
# Root hair cells
# H+ ion pump in guard cells
# Root Pressure? (ions actively transported out of the endodermal cells into the xylem to produce a water potential gradient)
# Reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
# Ions actively pumped out of the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle (Cl- and Na+?)

Photosynthesis - Light Independant Reaction - Calvin Cycle
# Glycerate 3 Phosphate -> Triose 3 Phosphate
# Triose 3 Phosphate -> Ribulose 3 Phosphate

Movement
# Muscle contractions
# Cilliary muscles in the eye
# Spindle fibre contractions in cell division

Sodium Potassium Pump in the neurone to get back to resting potential
# 3 Na+ out
# 2 K+ in

Anabolic Processes
# Protein Synthesis
# DNA replication


Hope this helps, sorry for any errors or spelling mistakes.
Sinico
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cclose
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(Original post by Nirvash)
I still haven't started my unit 6 revision... Haven't even looked at one paper!
ouch goodluck... I started a week ago myself- i think as long as you can remember most of the facts from the last 2 years ul be fine Try do a couple of papers just to get the feel of timing before the 18th though if u can
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