B1510- Ultra low Emission Zone Bill 2019

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Andrew97
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Ultra-Low Emission Zone Bill 2019, TSR Government
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Ultra-Low Emission Zone Bill 2019

An Act to introduce ultra-low emission zones across the UK to improve air quality.


BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

1: Definitions.
(1) Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) is a traffic pollution charge scheme that aims to reduce tailpipe emissions.
(2) A Euro standard is an exhaust emission standard for petrol and diesel engines and defines the limit for exhaust emissions for new vehicles sold in EU member states. There are multiple Euro standards.
(3) Specialist vehicles are defined as agricultural vehicles, military vehicles, non-road going vehicles which are allowed to drive on the motorway, large mobile cranes and amphibious vehicles.

2: Classes of the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) Class A: ULEZ will apply to buses, coaches, taxis and private hire vehicles (PHVs).
a) This will apply to the following areas:
- Northern Ireland: Armagh and Newry.
- Wales: Newport.
(2) Class B: ULEZ will apply to buses, coaches, taxis, private hire vehicles (PHVs), heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and light goods vehicles (LGVs).
a) This will apply to the following areas:
- Northern Ireland: Belfast and Londonderry (Derry).
- Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow.
- North West England: Chester and Lancashire (Blackburn, Blackpool, Burnley, Chorley, Lancaster, Preston and Wyre).
- North East England: Darlington, Gateshead, Hartlepool and Middlesborough.
- Wales: Cardiff and Swansea.
- East Midlands: Derby, Mansfield, Nottingham, Leicester, Northampton and Lincoln.
- South West England: Bath, Bournemouth, Bristol, Cheltenham, Exeter, Gloucester, Plymouth and Swindon.
- South East England: Berkshire (Bracknell Forest, Reading, Slough, West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead and Wokingham), Buckinghamshire (Amersham, Chesham and High Wycombe), Hampshire (Portsmouth, Southampton and Winchester), Kent (Ashford, Canterbury, Dartford, Gravesend, Maidstone, Medway, Sevenoaks and Tunbridge Wells), Oxford, Surrey and Sussex (Brighton, Crawley, Eastbourne, Hastings, Horsham, Hove and Worthing).
- East of England: Bedford, Cambridge, Essex, Hertfordshire (Broxbourne, Watford, Welwyn Hatfield, Stevenage and St Albans), Ipswich and Norwich.
(3) Class C: ULEZ will apply to buses, coaches, taxis, private hire vehicles (PHVs), heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), light goods vehicles (LGVs) and cars.
a) This will apply to the following areas:
- North West England: Greater Manchester (Bolton, Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Manchester, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford and Wigan) and Merseyside (Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, Sefton, St Helens and Wirral).
- North East England: Durham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland.
- Yorkshire and the Humber: Bradford, Hull, Leeds, Sheffield, Wakefield and York.
- West Midlands: Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Stoke-on-Trent, Solihull, Walsall and Wolverhampton.
- Central London (within the North and South Circular boundary) and the whole of the London Borough of Hounslow.

3: Operation of the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) ULEZ shall operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year across the UK.
(2) The ULEZ infrastructure shall be jointly operated by local government authorities and the Department of Transport.
(3) Local government authorities and the Department of Transport reserves the right to make amendments to the ULEZ in towns and cities subject to public consultation.
(4) The ULEZ charges shall come into effect on 1st January 2020.

4: Vehicles affected by the Ultra-Low Emission Zone Charges.
(1) All vehicles travelling in the zone shall have to meet specific exhaust emission standards laid out in this act.
(2) A Government grant of up to £3,500 is available to help car, motorcycle and van owners in purchasing a new ultra-low emission vehicle.

5: Charges for the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) Information regarding ULEZ emission standards, the daily charge, discounts and exemptions shall be available on local government authorities and Department of Transport websites.
(i) Vehicles travelling across different ULEZ classes will only have to pay the daily charge once.
(2) ULEZ emission standards are based on Euro emission standards.
(3) Vehicles registered outside of the UK shall pay the ULEZ charge as well as vehicles registered inside of the UK.
(4) The ULEZ emission standards and charges for vehicles are as follows:
(i) Vehicle type, Euro Standards, Charge per day if not compliant with the ULEZ standards:
- Motorcycle, moped etc. Euro 3 - £12.50
- Car and a small van. Euro 4 (Petrol)/Euro 6 (Diesel) - £12.50
- Large van and minibus. Euro 4 (Petrol)/Euro 6 (Diesel) - £12.50
- Heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). Euro 6 - £100
- Bus and coach. Euro 6 - £100
(ii) The charges shall cover the vehicle in the ULEZ from 00:00 to 23:59.
(iii) From 00:00 the next day, the ULEZ charge shall be paid again if the vehicle drives within the ULEZ.

6: Discounts and Exemptions from the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) Local businesses within ULEZ Classes B and C shall be exempt from ULEZ charges for 2 years to allow them to adapt/change their vehicle to meet ULEZ standards.
(i) The discount shall be available to local businesses within ULEZ Classes B and C from 2020 to 2022.
(ii) On 1st January 2022 local businesses within ULEZ Classes B and C shall no longer be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(2) Residents who live within ULEZ Class C shall be exempt from ULEZ charges for 2 years to allow them to adapt/change their vehicle to meet ULEZ standards.
(i) The discount shall be available to those who live in ULEZ Class C from 2020 to 2022.
(ii) On 1st January 2022 residents within ULEZ Class C shall no longer be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(3) Vehicles that have a ‘disabled’ or ‘disabled passenger vehicle’ tax class shall be exempt from the ULEZ charges for 2 years to allow them to adapt/change their vehicle to meet ULEZ standards.
(i) The discount shall be available to those who live in ULEZ Class C from 2020 to 2022.
(ii) On 1st January 2022 residents within ULEZ Class C who have a ‘disabled’ or ‘disabled passenger vehicle’ tax class shall no longer be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(4) All vehicles that have a ‘historic’ vehicle tax class shall be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(i) The ‘historic’ vehicle tax class excludes any vehicle used commercially.
(5) Vehicles built before 1st January 1973 shall be exempt from the ULEZ charge.
(6) Specialist vehicles shall be exempt from the ULEZ charge.

7: Payment of the Ultra-Low Emission Zones charges.
(1) Local government authorities will be responsible for building ANPR cameras within the ULEZ to read the vehicle’s number plate within the zone to see if the vehicle meets the emissions standards for ULEZ.
(i) The ULEZ shall use fixed and mobile CCTV number plate recognition (known as ANPR cameras).
(2) There shall be no barriers or toll booths for the payment of the ULEZ charge.
(3) The ULEZ charges shall be able to be paid online, by post, by PayPoint machines, by the Post Office or by phone.
(4) The ULEZ charges shall be paid within 28 days of being issued.
(i) Failure to pay the ULEZ charge within 28 days shall result in a penalty fine of triple the original ULEZ charge.
(ii) The ULEZ penalty fine shall be paid within 14 days of being issued.
(iii) Failure to pay the ULEZ penalty charge shall result in prosecution.

8: Commencement, Short Title and Extent.
(1) This act extends to the whole of the United Kingdom.
(2) This act shall come into force from 1st January 2020.
(3) This act may be cited as the Ultra-Low Emission Zone Bill 2019.



Notes
This government is committed to tackling the climate emergency head-on such that we can leave behind a cleaner, greener and more sustainable world for future generations to enjoy. Through the implementation of ULEZ from 1st January 2020, we will be introducing the world's toughest ULEZ across towns and cities in the UK to drastically improve air quality such that they meet WHO standards for air quality or better.1

Car, motorcycle and van owners living in ULEZ classes B and C who are required to adapt/change their vehicles can apply for a £3,500 Government grant to help with the cost of purchasing a new ultra-low emission vehicle. 2Alternatively, car, motorcycle and van owners (and those who own other vehicles) can adapt their vehicles to meet the ULEZ standards by retrofitting it to reduce tailpipe emissions through the following: Adblue, Bio-diesel, Flywheel system, diesel particulate filters and selective catalytic reduction.

As for bus and coach operators, they will be largely unaffected through the introduction of ULEZ as many large bus operators such as Arriva, First and Stagecoach and coach operators such as National Express and Megabus already have vehicles which are ULEZ compliant. For smaller bus and coach operators, they will be eligible to bid for the Clean Bus Technology Fund 3 which is worth £7 million to partially fund the cost of upgrade their fleet to meet ULEZ requirements and/or fund the cost of purchasing a new ultra-low emissions vehicle.

Finally, vehicles travelling across different ULEZs in towns and cities across the UK will only have to pay the daily charge once as stated in subsection 5, 1 (i).

Footnotes
1https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fac...ity-and-health
2https://www.gov.uk/plug-in-car-van-grants
3https://www.gov.uk/government/collec...echnology-fund

Costings
It is extremely difficult to estimate the cost of ULEZ across the UK because this has not been introduced across the UK and several towns and cities like Birmingham and Leeds are currently considering about implementing a clean air zone. Therefore, we do not know the estimated revenue that ULEZ would generate across the UK or the costs that are involved with implementing the scheme. However, in Central London, the introduction of ULEZ is expected to generate a net operating surplus of £127m in its first year of operation. 1

Footnotes
1 https://www.london.gov.uk/questions/2018/3170
Last edited by CatusStarbright; 1 year ago
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CoffeeAndPolitics
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Excuse the formatting problems, it wasn’t like this in the Govt sub forum. Andrew97 I can try sending you the code version when I can as I have it saved in Word because TSR formatting is an arse smh.
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CatusStarbright
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(Original post by CoffeeAndPolitics)
Excuse the formatting problems, it wasn’t like this in the Govt sub forum. Andrew97 I can try sending you the code version when I can as I have it saved in Word because TSR formatting is an arse smh.
If you send it to the both of us I can also fix it if Andrew is struggling
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CoffeeAndPolitics
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(Original post by CatusStarbright)
If you send it to the both of us I can also fix it if Andrew is struggling
I'll try to copy and paste the formatting I have in Word to you both but I have a feeling that TSR's formatting will **** it up. I'm going to be logged off TSR for the rest of the evening as I'm not feeling too great atm.
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CatusStarbright
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(Original post by CoffeeAndPolitics)
I'll try to copy and paste the formatting I have in Word to you both but I have a feeling that TSR's formatting will **** it up. I'm going to be logged off TSR for the rest of the evening as I'm not feeling too great atm.
Get well soon. In the meantime I've fixed it to at least make it readable for you.

Edit: received the PM and everything is sorted now
Last edited by CatusStarbright; 1 year ago
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shadowdweller
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No strong opinions on this one!
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04MR17
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An excellent bill with impressive detail. I look forward to seeing it progress.
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yaseen1000
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AYE
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mnot
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(Original post by Andrew97)
Image
Ultra-Low Emission Zone Bill 2019
[field defaultattr=]
[/field]
An Act to introduce ultra-low emission zones across the UK to improve air quality.
[field defaultattr=]

BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

1: Definitions.
(1) Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) is a traffic pollution charge scheme that aims to reduce tailpipe emissions.
(2) A Euro standard is an exhaust emission standard for petrol and diesel engines and defines the limit for exhaust emissions for new vehicles sold in EU member states. There are multiple Euro standards.
(3) Specialist vehicles are defined as agricultural vehicles, military vehicles, non-road going vehicles which are allowed to drive on the motorway, large mobile cranes and amphibious vehicles.

2: Classes of the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) Class A: ULEZ will apply to buses, coaches, taxis and private hire vehicles (PHVs).
a) This will apply to the following areas:
- Northern Ireland: Armagh and Newry.
- Wales: Newport.
(2) Class B: ULEZ will apply to buses, coaches, taxis, private hire vehicles (PHVs), heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and light goods vehicles (LGVs).
a) This will apply to the following areas:
- Northern Ireland: Belfast and Londonderry (Derry).
- Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow.
- North West England: Chester and Lancashire (Blackburn, Blackpool, Burnley, Chorley, Lancaster, Preston and Wyre).
- North East England: Darlington, Gateshead, Hartlepool and Middlesborough.
- Wales: Cardiff and Swansea.
- East Midlands: Derby, Mansfield, Nottingham, Leicester, Northampton and Lincoln.
- South West England: Bath, Bournemouth, Bristol, Cheltenham, Exeter, Gloucester, Plymouth and Swindon.
- South East England: Berkshire (Bracknell Forest, Reading, Slough, West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead and Wokingham), Buckinghamshire (Amersham, Chesham and High Wycombe), Hampshire (Portsmouth, Southampton and Winchester), Kent (Ashford, Canterbury, Dartford, Gravesend, Maidstone, Medway, Sevenoaks and Tunbridge Wells), Oxford, Surrey and Sussex (Brighton, Crawley, Eastbourne, Hastings, Horsham, Hove and Worthing).
- East of England: Bedford, Cambridge, Essex, Hertfordshire (Broxbourne, Watford, Welwyn Hatfield, Stevenage and St Albans), Ipswich and Norwich.
(3) Class C: ULEZ will apply to buses, coaches, taxis, private hire vehicles (PHVs), heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), light goods vehicles (LGVs) and cars.
a) This will apply to the following areas:
- North West England: Greater Manchester (Bolton, Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Manchester, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford and Wigan) and Merseyside (Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, Sefton, St Helens and Wirral).
- North East England: Durham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland.
- Yorkshire and the Humber: Bradford, Hull, Leeds, Sheffield, Wakefield and York.
- West Midlands: Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Stoke-on-Trent, Solihull, Walsall and Wolverhampton.
- Central London (within the North and South Circular boundary) and the whole of the London Borough of Hounslow.

3: Operation of the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) ULEZ shall operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year across the UK.
(2) The ULEZ infrastructure shall be jointly operated by local government authorities and the Department of Transport.
(3) Local government authorities and the Department of Transport reserves the right to make amendments to the ULEZ in towns and cities subject to public consultation.
(4) The ULEZ charges shall come into effect on 1st January 2020.

4: Vehicles affected by the Ultra-Low Emission Zone Charges.
(1) All vehicles travelling in the zone shall have to meet specific exhaust emission standards laid out in this act.
(2) A Government grant of up to £3,500 is available to help car, motorcycle and van owners in purchasing a new ultra-low emission vehicle.

5: Charges for the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) Information regarding ULEZ emission standards, the daily charge, discounts and exemptions shall be available on local government authorities and Department of Transport websites.
(i) Vehicles travelling across different ULEZ classes will only have to pay the daily charge once.
(2) ULEZ emission standards are based on Euro emission standards.
(3) Vehicles registered outside of the UK shall pay the ULEZ charge as well as vehicles registered inside of the UK.
(4) The ULEZ emission standards and charges for vehicles are as follows:
(i) Vehicle type, Euro Standards, Charge per day if not compliant with the ULEZ standards:
- Motorcycle, moped etc. Euro 3 - £12.50
- Car and a small van. Euro 4 (Petrol)/Euro 6 (Diesel) - £12.50
- Large van and minibus. Euro 4 (Petrol)/Euro 6 (Diesel) - £12.50
- Heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). Euro 6 - £100
- Bus and coach. Euro 6 - £100
(ii) The charges shall cover the vehicle in the ULEZ from 00:00 to 23:59.
(iii) From 00:00 the next day, the ULEZ charge shall be paid again if the vehicle drives within the ULEZ.

6: Discounts and Exemptions from the Ultra-Low Emission Zones.
(1) Local businesses within ULEZ Classes B and C shall be exempt from ULEZ charges for 2 years to allow them to adapt/change their vehicle to meet ULEZ standards.
(i) The discount shall be available to local businesses within ULEZ Classes B and C from 2020 to 2022.
(ii) On 1st January 2022 local businesses within ULEZ Classes B and C shall no longer be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(2) Residents who live within ULEZ Class C shall be exempt from ULEZ charges for 2 years to allow them to adapt/change their vehicle to meet ULEZ standards.
(i) The discount shall be available to those who live in ULEZ Class C from 2020 to 2022.
(ii) On 1st January 2022 residents within ULEZ Class C shall no longer be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(3) Vehicles that have a ‘disabled’ or ‘disabled passenger vehicle’ tax class shall be exempt from the ULEZ charges for 2 years to allow them to adapt/change their vehicle to meet ULEZ standards.
(i) The discount shall be available to those who live in ULEZ Class C from 2020 to 2022.
(ii) On 1st January 2022 residents within ULEZ Class C who have a ‘disabled’ or ‘disabled passenger vehicle’ tax class shall no longer be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(4) All vehicles that have a ‘historic’ vehicle tax class shall be exempt from ULEZ charges.
(i) The ‘historic’ vehicle tax class excludes any vehicle used commercially.
(5) Vehicles built before 1st January 1973 shall be exempt from the ULEZ charge.
(6) Specialist vehicles shall be exempt from the ULEZ charge.

7: Payment of the Ultra-Low Emission Zones charges.
(1) Local government authorities will be responsible for building ANPR cameras within the ULEZ to read the vehicle’s number plate within the zone to see if the vehicle meets the emissions standards for ULEZ.
(i) The ULEZ shall use fixed and mobile CCTV number plate recognition (known as ANPR cameras).
(2) There shall be no barriers or toll booths for the payment of the ULEZ charge.
(3) The ULEZ charges shall be able to be paid online, by post, by PayPoint machines, by the Post Office or by phone.
(4) The ULEZ charges shall be paid within 28 days of being issued.
(i) Failure to pay the ULEZ charge within 28 days shall result in a penalty fine of triple the original ULEZ charge.
(ii) The ULEZ penalty fine shall be paid within 14 days of being issued.
(iii) Failure to pay the ULEZ penalty charge shall result in prosecution.

8: Commencement, Short Title and Extent.
(1) This act extends to the whole of the United Kingdom.
(2) This act shall come into force from 1st January 2020.
(3) This act may be cited as the Ultra-Low Emission Zone Bill 2019.
[/field]


Notes
This government is committed to tackling the climate emergency head-on such that we can leave behind a cleaner, greener and more sustainable world for future generations to enjoy. Through the implementation of ULEZ from 1st January 2020, we will be introducing the world's toughest ULEZ across towns and cities in the UK to drastically improve air quality such that they meet WHO standards for air quality or better.1

Car, motorcycle and van owners living in ULEZ classes B and C who are required to adapt/change their vehicles can apply for a £3,500 Government grant to help with the cost of purchasing a new ultra-low emission vehicle. 2Alternatively, car, motorcycle and van owners (and those who own other vehicles) can adapt their vehicles to meet the ULEZ standards by retrofitting it to reduce tailpipe emissions through the following: Adblue, Bio-diesel, Flywheel system, diesel particulate filters and selective catalytic reduction.

As for bus and coach operators, they will be largely unaffected through the introduction of ULEZ as many large bus operators such as Arriva, First and Stagecoach and coach operators such as National Express and Megabus already have vehicles which are ULEZ compliant. For smaller bus and coach operators, they will be eligible to bid for the Clean Bus Technology Fund 3 which is worth £7 million to partially fund the cost of upgrade their fleet to meet ULEZ requirements and/or fund the cost of purchasing a new ultra-low emissions vehicle.

Finally, vehicles travelling across different ULEZs in towns and cities across the UK will only have to pay the daily charge once as stated in subsection 5, 1 (i).

Footnotes
1https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fac...ity-and-health
2https://www.gov.uk/plug-in-car-van-grants
3https://www.gov.uk/government/collec...echnology-fund

Costings
It is extremely difficult to estimate the cost of ULEZ across the UK because this has not been introduced across the UK and several towns and cities like Birmingham and Leeds are currently considering about implementing a clean air zone. Therefore, we do not know the estimated revenue that ULEZ would generate across the UK or the costs that are involved with implementing the scheme. However, in Central London, the introduction of ULEZ is expected to generate a net operating surplus of £127m in its first year of operation. 1

Footnotes
1 https://www.london.gov.uk/questions/2018/3170
How are people in city centres in zero emission zones supposed to eat, the supply chain requires the big 18-26 tonne refrigeration trucks, which cannot be manufactured with low tailpipe emissions, they require diesel to operate.
HEV/EV trucks whilst are improving cannot perform to requirements and are too expensive to purchase.

Not to mention the whole high street & retail industry requires them or is that in the bin as well, and in the ULEZ there is not the space for the infrastructure to support mass adoption of EV's as people dont have garages/ large recharging bays. Anyone whos actually read the reports about the planned zones can see through the implementation problems...

Given the problems on ruining battery on supercharging due to high transients currents most cars will have to be plugged-in for long hours blocking small side roads and residential neighbourhoods, what measures are planned to combat this?
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Jammy Duel
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Oh look, something the government said wasn't coming
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04MR17
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(Original post by Jammy Duel)
Oh look, something the government said wasn't coming
When and where was this said?
Or are you making things up again?
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CatusStarbright
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I like the principle, but the charges are very high and the legislation is coming in too quickly for most people to react in time.
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barnetlad
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Charges are an incentive not to have an aged polluting car.

Aye to the Bill.
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CoffeeAndPolitics
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(Original post by CatusStarbright)
I like the principle, but the charges are very high and the legislation is coming in too quickly for most people to react in time.
I'll consider this and other comments for the second reading. I can't respond to everything at the time being as I'm still not feeling too great + I have a busy week ahead with A-Level results day etc. which is creating a lot of stress, anxiety and the hell of it. Glad you like the principle though.
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Rakas21
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(Original post by Andrew97)
qfa
[field defaultattr=][/field]
You need to add in the author next to the bit at the top.
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CatusStarbright
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(Original post by CoffeeAndPolitics)
I'll consider this and other comments for the second reading. I can't respond to everything at the time being as I'm still not feeling too great + I have a busy week ahead with A-Level results day etc. which is creating a lot of stress, anxiety and the hell of it. Glad you like the principle though.
Thank you.

Best wishes for your results!
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username1539513
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Wouldn’t it just be better to do what Norway does and provide incentives and free power for the purchase of electric vehicles?
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mnot
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it needs to be scaled adoption for market volume by 2030 and market dominance by 2050.

Quite simply there are far too many problems to have this sort of scheme on the scale indicated above.

1) There isnt even the raw materials available to produce the batteries required (assuming NMC, Li-Ion), scaling the distribution of this will take years.
2) The current electric vehicles only become emission neutral after about 20,000 miles as the lightweight materials actually produce more emissions in plant production. To ensure it is effective this needs to be scaled effectively.
3) Recyclability of batteries is a huge issue, new manufacturing techniques needed, again this will take time (not 6 months, like 10-15 years)
4) The grid needs to provide green energy to make this worthwhile: its not available, meaning you have to pile more into nuclear sources, which requires new plants to be built (this also cant be done by 2020...)
5) Vehicle Costs are too expensive for example a golf is about £18k standard v e-golf £32K, and in trucks the issue is worse a 7 tonne commercial vehicle £70K v HEV commercial truck £200K

as well as the issues i've previously raised in my first post and many many more (especially core infrastructure)
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username1539513
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(Original post by mnot)
it needs to be scaled adoption for market volume by 2030 and market dominance by 2050.

Quite simply there are far too many problems to have this sort of scheme on the scale indicated above.

1) There isnt even the raw materials available to produce the batteries required (assuming NMC, Li-Ion), scaling the distribution of this will take years.
2) The current electric vehicles only become emission neutral after about 20,000 miles as the lightweight materials actually produce more emissions in plant production. To ensure it is effective this needs to be scaled effectively.
3) Recyclability of batteries is a huge issue, new manufacturing techniques needed, again this will take time (not 6 months, like 10-15 years)
4) The grid needs to provide green energy to make this worthwhile: its not available, meaning you have to pile more into nuclear sources, which requires new plants to be built (this also cant be done by 2020...)
5) Vehicle Costs are too expensive for example a golf is about £18k standard v e-golf £32K, and in trucks the issue is worse a 7 tonne commercial vehicle £70K v HEV commercial truck £200K

as well as the issues i've previously raised in my first post and many many more (especially core infrastructure)
I’m not educated enough or knowledgable enough to debate this either way if I’m being honest; but Norway has somehow managed to do it. We were in Oslo in April and nearly every car was a Tesla or electric model. I agree that one of the primary issues is that it would require a significant amount of investment; and electric cars are more expensive than the average fossil fuel ran car. I also however acknowledge that Norway’s population is considerably lower than our own despite dwarfing us in size; and that they have billions tucked away from oil profits; not something that the UK can really emulate
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toronto353
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I'll be voting against this Bill. Firstly, I don't agree with targeting buses with these ULEZ and believe that it will simply hammer bus companies, which are vital parts of our transport infrastructure. These companies will simply resort to cutting routes or raising ticket prices to cover the cost of replacing buses. I also don't agree with this Bill from a localism point of view. Many councils run excellent initiatives already which work and work well. I don't like the idea of the Government simply imposing this scheme on councils without a thought as to its compatibility with existing local environmental schemes. On this occasion therefore, with these concerns still not assuaged, I will have no alternative but to vote against the Government on this issue.
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