multiple choice bioWatch
Amino acids and glucose are taken up by cotransport (secondary active transport) using the sodium electrochemical gradient. The basolateral membrane (the membrane closest to the capillaries) has the sodium-potassium pump which pumps 3 sodium ions out of the cell - creating a low concentration of sodium in the cell. This creates a concentration gradient of sodium across the cell membrane. As sodium ions diffuse into the cell down their concentration gradient through a transporter, that energy is used to pump glucose and amino acids into the cell against their concentration gradient. The specific transporters for glucose if you’re interested are the SGLT transporters.