nanachan123
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and what's the science behind it
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Arif_Khajjak
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DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints. DNA analysis intended to identify a species, rather than an individual, is called DNA barcoding.

DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime.[1] It is also used in parentage testing,[2] to establish immigration eligibility,[3] and in genealogical and medical research. DNA profiling has also been used in the study of animal and plant populations in the fields of zoology, botany, and agriculture

Background
Starting in the 1980s scientific advances allowed for the use of DNA as a mechanism for the identification of an individual. The first patent covering the modern process of DNA profiling was filed by Dr. Jeffrey Glassberg[5] in 1983, based upon work he had done while at Rockefeller University in 1981. Glassberg, along with two medical doctors, founded Lifecodes Corporation[6][7] to bring this invention to market. The Glassberg patent was issued in Belgium BE899027A1,[8] Canada FR2541774A1,[9] Germany DE3407196 A1,[10] Great Britain GB8405107D0,[11] Japan JPS59199000A,[12] United States as US5593832A.[13][14] In the United Kingdom, Geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys[15][16][17][18] independently developed a DNA profiling process in beginning in late 1984[19] while working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester.[20]

The process, developed by Jeffreys in conjunction with Peter Gill and Dave Werrett of the Forensic Science Service (FSS), was first used forensically in the solving of the murder of two teenagers who had been raped and murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire in 1983 and 1986. In the murder inquiry, led by Detective David Baker, the DNA contained within blood samples obtained voluntarily from around 5,000 local men who willingly assisted Leicestershire Constabulary with the investigation, resulted in the exoneration of Richard Buckland, an initial suspect who had confessed to one of the crimes, and the subsequent conviction of Colin Pitchfork on January 2, 1988. Pitchfork, a local bakery employee, had coerced his coworker Ian Kelly to stand in for him when providing a blood sample—Kelly then used a forged passport to impersonate Pitchfork. Another coworker reported the deception to the police. Pitchfork was arrested, and his blood was sent to Jeffrey's lab for processing and profile development. Pitchfork's profile matched that of DNA left by the murderer which confirmed Pitchfork's presence at both crime scenes; he pleaded guilty to both murders.[21]

Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different that it is possible to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic (identical) twins.[22] DNA profiling uses repetitive sequences that are highly variable,[22] called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), in particular short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, and minisatellites. VNTR loci are similar between closely related individuals, but are so variable that unrelated individuals are unlikely to have the same VNTRs.

In India DNA fingerprinting was started by Dr. VK Kashyap and Dr. Lalji Singh. Singh was an Indian scientist who worked in the field of DNA fingerprinting technology in India, where he was popularly known as the "Father of Indian DNA fingerprinting".[23] In 2004, he received the Padma Shri in recognition of his contribution to Indian science and technology.[24]

Profiling processes
The process, developed by Glassberg and independently by Jeffreys, begins with a sample of an individual's DNA (typically called a "reference sample"). Reference samples are usually collected through a buccal swab. When this is unavailable (for example, when a court order is needed but unobtainable) other methods may be needed to collect a sample of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal lubrication, or other fluid or tissue from personal use items (for example, a toothbrush, razor) or from stored samples (for example, banked sperm or biopsy tissue). Samples obtained from blood relatives can indicate an individual's profile, as could previous profiled human remains. A reference sample is then analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of the techniques discussed below. The DNA profile is then compared against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match.
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nanachan123
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(Original post by Arif_Khajjak)
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints. DNA analysis intended to identify a species, rather than an individual, is called DNA barcoding.

DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime.[1] It is also used in parentage testing,[2] to establish immigration eligibility,[3] and in genealogical and medical research. DNA profiling has also been used in the study of animal and plant populations in the fields of zoology, botany, and agriculture

Background
Starting in the 1980s scientific advances allowed for the use of DNA as a mechanism for the identification of an individual. The first patent covering the modern process of DNA profiling was filed by Dr. Jeffrey Glassberg[5] in 1983, based upon work he had done while at Rockefeller University in 1981. Glassberg, along with two medical doctors, founded Lifecodes Corporation[6][7] to bring this invention to market. The Glassberg patent was issued in Belgium BE899027A1,[8] Canada FR2541774A1,[9] Germany DE3407196 A1,[10] Great Britain GB8405107D0,[11] Japan JPS59199000A,[12] United States as US5593832A.[13][14] In the United Kingdom, Geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys[15][16][17][18] independently developed a DNA profiling process in beginning in late 1984[19] while working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester.[20]

The process, developed by Jeffreys in conjunction with Peter Gill and Dave Werrett of the Forensic Science Service (FSS), was first used forensically in the solving of the murder of two teenagers who had been raped and murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire in 1983 and 1986. In the murder inquiry, led by Detective David Baker, the DNA contained within blood samples obtained voluntarily from around 5,000 local men who willingly assisted Leicestershire Constabulary with the investigation, resulted in the exoneration of Richard Buckland, an initial suspect who had confessed to one of the crimes, and the subsequent conviction of Colin Pitchfork on January 2, 1988. Pitchfork, a local bakery employee, had coerced his coworker Ian Kelly to stand in for him when providing a blood sample—Kelly then used a forged passport to impersonate Pitchfork. Another coworker reported the deception to the police. Pitchfork was arrested, and his blood was sent to Jeffrey's lab for processing and profile development. Pitchfork's profile matched that of DNA left by the murderer which confirmed Pitchfork's presence at both crime scenes; he pleaded guilty to both murders.[21]

Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different that it is possible to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic (identical) twins.[22] DNA profiling uses repetitive sequences that are highly variable,[22] called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), in particular short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, and minisatellites. VNTR loci are similar between closely related individuals, but are so variable that unrelated individuals are unlikely to have the same VNTRs.

In India DNA fingerprinting was started by Dr. VK Kashyap and Dr. Lalji Singh. Singh was an Indian scientist who worked in the field of DNA fingerprinting technology in India, where he was popularly known as the "Father of Indian DNA fingerprinting".[23] In 2004, he received the Padma Shri in recognition of his contribution to Indian science and technology.[24]

Profiling processes
The process, developed by Glassberg and independently by Jeffreys, begins with a sample of an individual's DNA (typically called a "reference sample"). Reference samples are usually collected through a buccal swab. When this is unavailable (for example, when a court order is needed but unobtainable) other methods may be needed to collect a sample of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal lubrication, or other fluid or tissue from personal use items (for example, a toothbrush, razor) or from stored samples (for example, banked sperm or biopsy tissue). Samples obtained from blood relatives can indicate an individual's profile, as could previous profiled human remains. A reference sample is then analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of the techniques discussed below. The DNA profile is then compared against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match.
thank you.. but did you just copy and paste? i've read this before yet still im not clear
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Arif_Khajjak
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(Original post by nanachan123)
thank you.. but did you just copy and paste? i've read this before yet still im not clear
yes i copied it from wikipidea you can search all from this
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