Naming Ionic compoundsWatch
Tin (Z = 50) has two common ions (2+ and 4+) for example.
Elements with “high atomic number” tend to be ones that have d electrons. So, all of those following and starting from the 3d block. Because of the interesting possibilities we have with d- orbitals, the 3d, 4d, 5d and 6d blocks (also known as the transition metals) are all known to contain metals that have a wide range of charge states (e.g 2+,3+,4+,1-,2-....). The heavier metals can usually reach the largest oxidation states or charges. However, this isn’t to say that the elements either side in the s and p blocks can’t vary their oxidation state or ionic charge either (a lot of them can, for example Lead metal can vary its charge, and nitrogen/chlorine etc can vary their oxidation state).
It is sort of impossible to remember every single possibility of every element. It would take you forever. It’s more easy to remember the “typical” charges of common metals you study in chemistry. For example, keep in mind paragraph 1 in the image you have sent. It is typical for elements to reach charge states of their group number. But keep an open mind and know that this isn’t always the case for the majority of elements. As you continue to study chemistry you will be able to remember the typical charges of elements you should remember, but will continuously learn new examples.
You didn't read all of the OPs post did you? he mentions copper ,Cu, and lead ,Pb, ions from the Transition metals part of the Periodic Table. lol. How good is your chemistry my man?
The first rule pertains to main group elements (i.e. not the transistion elements) and his question was about the second rule, which is talking about exceptions to the first rule based on atomic number.
''They'' didn't mention anything, the text in the post mentions copper in the third rule. The OP has highlighted the second rule. Not the third