Identify two organisations and two scientists mentioned in the articles and suggest how they have had an influence on the main scientific issues (6marks)
Identify key people / organisations and how they would influence the issue discussed. These people/ organisations can be the authors of the articles or mentioned within the article.
To score highly ensure you make links between the individuals and organisations and the articles. Responses must be able to explain how the identified party would be able to influence the issue, who they may influence and to what extent.
It is not necessary for you to produce an exhaustive list of all the organisations or individuals referenced in the articles but it would be advisable to provide an example from each of the categories listed in the essential content for Unit 7: Government and global organisations; Non-government organisations, professional bodies and associations; Universities and research groups; Private and multinational organisations; Voluntary pressure groups
Discuss whether article 3 has made valid judgements. In your answer you should consider:
• how the article has interpreted and analysed the scientific information to support the conclusions/judgments being made
• the validity and reliability of data
• references to other sources of information. (12marks)
Prepare notes answering these questions
Define what validity and reliability are
Do you think the article is valid?
Is there any bias?
Is it optimistic?
Information can be deemed reliable if
• The study is repeatable and provides similar or the same results
• Results are repeated by others
• The pattern in the data can be identified in tables or graphs
• Secondary data supports the primary data
Information can be deemed valid if
• The investigation actually measures what it set out to measure
• Provides some corroboration of other similar studies
• Outcomes provides information which may improve the area of study
• Panel of individuals review the investigation
Use and misuse of Data
• Make sure all figures or information presented can be verified by others or by trusted scientific principles and publications
• Read all points. Are the data calculations suitable for example?
• Does the way the data has been collected fit in with usual methods? Could it have been done better?
• Check the figures, look for outliers or missing numbers. These may indicate something went wrong
• Is the paper referenced throughout?
• How old are the references? If dated are they still valid?
• Check to see if still be cited to confirm if still valid
• Are they from the same people or are they different?
• If more people are referenced and they corroborate then this makes it more valid
Question 4 (35mins or 45mins extended)
Suggest potential areas for further development and/or research of the scientific issue from the three articles. (5 marks)
For this question when you read the 3 articles in Part A you should research potential new areas for development.
The command verb is ‘suggest’ which requires the learner picks out aspects of research in the issue and comment upon how they could be further developed or investigated
Question 5 (15marks)
This question is the only one that changes every year and hence why it is necessary you practise writing out different responses to the different type of audiences. An example of the question is
You are an infection control nurse. You have been asked to raise awareness among district nurses of the problem with antibiotic-resistant microbes that cause skin (topical) infections such as leg ulcers.
One of the roles of a district nurse is to visit the homes of elderly patients to change their medical dressings for skin infections such as leg ulcers
Your task is to write an article for district nurses about the possible benefits and limitations of using medical grade honey dressings to treat skin infections.
Use information from the three articles provided for this task. When writing your article you should consider
• who is likely to read the article
• what you would like the reader to learn from the article.
This question is worth the most amount of marks, but is the one you can’t prepare notes for as much.
Ensure you are clear you fully understand the contemporary issue and how each article relates to it
If you know certain phrases or key words you have trouble with remembering or spelling then you could list them here.
Certain phrases are used for certain audiences to get buy in for your written piece eg. CORPORATE CONTROL’ , ‘AGGRESSIVE PURSUIT OF PROFIT’,‘BETTER ALTERNATIVES EXIST’, ‘PROFOUNDLY DAMAGING’ , DESTROYING BIODIVERSITY’ and you could identify ot list some here too
If you are having to write a tabloid piece or a piece for the general public you will have to change some of the scientific terminology to phrases the lay person would understand and these you could also list here to save time in the exam
Finally if there are any key quotes which you think would benefit all the types of audience then write them under the section. Don’t forget to include the name of the person who gave the quote, it will save time in the written exam looking for the relevant quotes