headieone
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I'm in 2nd year A levels on board OCR A.

Firstly, what is the difference between phenol and phenyl?
And secondly, what are the different directing groups included in my spec? In particular aldehydes.

I know ketones direct at 3, Nitrate directs at 3, halogens direct at 2,4 and alkyl groups direct at 2,4. Are there others I should be aware of? Thanks
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tuxedo-
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Phenol is benzene with an alcohol group attached.

Phenyl is usually the prefix when you are naming something that has a benzene ring attached to it. For example, phenylethanoic acid. Which is just ethanoic acid with a benzene ring attached to the 2nd carbon atom.

As for the spec i don't know it or am going to read it so i suggest asking your teacher who is hopefully willing to tell you what you need to know, mine would.
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headieone
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how do you know what the functional group is? so if it's a benzene ring attached to ethanol how do you know if benzene is the functional group or ethanol or if ethanol is the functional group of benzene if that makes sense
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tuxedo-
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(Original post by sam72016)
how do you know what the functional group is? so if it's a benzene ring attached to ethanol how do you know if benzene is the functional group or ethanol or if ethanol is the functional group of benzene if that makes sense
You can find the priority group list on IUPAC's own nomenclature or just on wikipedia. Generally you just learn it, carboxylic acid for example takes priority over a lot of groups. Benzene is not really ever the functional group unless its just alkyl groups attached to the benzene ring(s). Some compounds might be named differently like benzoic acid instead of phenyloic acid but usually if you add a group to benzene, often it takes priority in naming.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IUPAC_...anic_chemistry

In terms of reactions, having a priority group when naming means little because different groups can react under different conditions and a molecule can have more than one functional group anyway.
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