Kueno Oscar
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How does chromatography work in paper chromatography and in TLC?? Please
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Paper_in_ASHES
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(Original post by Kueno Oscar)
How does chromatography work in paper chromatography and in TLC?? Please
thin-layer chromatography (TLC) – a plate is coated
with a solid and a solvent moves up the plate
column chromatography (CC) – a column is packed
with a solid and a solvent moves down the column
gas chromatography (GC) – a column is packed with a
solid or with a solid coated by a liquid, and a gas is
passed through the column under pressure at high
temperature.



A pencil line is drawn near the bottom of the plate and a small drop of a solution of the dye mixture is placed on it. Any labelling on the plate to show the original position of the drop must also be in pencil. If any of this was done in ink, dyes from the ink would also move as the chromatogram developed.

When the spot of mixture is dry, the plate is stood in a shallow layer of solvent in a covered beaker. It is important that the solvent level is below the line with the spot on it.

The reason for covering the beaker is to make sure that the atmosphere in the beaker is saturated with solvent vapour. To help this, the beaker is often lined with some filter paper soaked in solvent. Saturating the atmosphere in the beaker with vapour stops the solvent from evaporating as it rises up the plate.

As the solvent slowly travels up the plate, the different components of the dye mixture travel at different rates and the mixture is separated into different coloured spots.The stationary phase on a thin layer plate often has a substance added to it which will fluoresce when exposed to UV light. That means that if you shine UV light on it, it will glow.

That glow is masked at the position where the spots are on the final chromatogram - even if those spots are invisible to the eye. That means that if you shine UV light on the plate, it will all glow apart from where the spots are. The spots show up as darker patches.


How does thin layer chromatography work?
The stationary phase - silica gel
Silica gel is a form of silicon dioxide (silica). The silicon atoms are joined via oxygen atoms in a giant covalent structure. However, at the surface of the silica gel, the silicon atoms are attached to -OH groups.
So, at the surface of the silica gel you have Si-O-H bonds instead of Si-O-Si bonds. The diagram shows a small part of the silica surface.
The surface of the silica gel is very polar and, because of the -OH groups, can form hydrogen bonds with suitable compounds around it as well as van der Waals dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions.

How does paper chromatography work?

Although paper chromatography is simple to do, it is quite difficult to explain compared with thin layer chromatography. The explanation depends to some extent on what sort of solvent you are using, and many sources gloss over the problem completely.

The essential structure of paper:
Paper is made of cellulose fibres, and cellulose is a polymer of the simple sugar, glucose.

The key point about cellulose is that the polymer chains have -OH groups sticking out all around them. To that extent, it presents the same sort of surface as silica gel or alumina in thin layer chromatography.

It would be tempting to try to explain paper chromatography in terms of the way that different compounds are adsorbed to different extents on to the paper surface. In other words, it would be nice to be able to use the same explanation for both thin layer and paper chromatography. Unfortunately, it is more complicated than that!
The complication arises because the cellulose fibres attract water vapour from the atmosphere as well as any water that was present when the paper was made. You can therefore think of paper as being cellulose fibres with a very thin layer of water molecules bound to the surface.
It is the interaction with this water which is the most important effect during paper chromatography.
The other commonly used stationary phase is alumina - aluminium oxide. The aluminium atoms on the surface of this also have -OH groups attached. Anything we say about silica gel therefore applies equally to alumina

HOPE THIS HELPS . And sorry if it was too complex .

Look at Physics and maths tutor , Chem revise , A level Chemistry website .
Good luck with everything . <3<3
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Kueno Oscar
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(Original post by Paper_in_ASHES)
thin-layer chromatography (TLC) – a plate is coated
with a solid and a solvent moves up the plate
column chromatography (CC) – a column is packed
with a solid and a solvent moves down the column
gas chromatography (GC) – a column is packed with a
solid or with a solid coated by a liquid, and a gas is
passed through the column under pressure at high
temperature.



A pencil line is drawn near the bottom of the plate and a small drop of a solution of the dye mixture is placed on it. Any labelling on the plate to show the original position of the drop must also be in pencil. If any of this was done in ink, dyes from the ink would also move as the chromatogram developed.

When the spot of mixture is dry, the plate is stood in a shallow layer of solvent in a covered beaker. It is important that the solvent level is below the line with the spot on it.

The reason for covering the beaker is to make sure that the atmosphere in the beaker is saturated with solvent vapour. To help this, the beaker is often lined with some filter paper soaked in solvent. Saturating the atmosphere in the beaker with vapour stops the solvent from evaporating as it rises up the plate.

As the solvent slowly travels up the plate, the different components of the dye mixture travel at different rates and the mixture is separated into different coloured spots.The stationary phase on a thin layer plate often has a substance added to it which will fluoresce when exposed to UV light. That means that if you shine UV light on it, it will glow.

That glow is masked at the position where the spots are on the final chromatogram - even if those spots are invisible to the eye. That means that if you shine UV light on the plate, it will all glow apart from where the spots are. The spots show up as darker patches.


How does thin layer chromatography work?
The stationary phase - silica gel
Silica gel is a form of silicon dioxide (silica). The silicon atoms are joined via oxygen atoms in a giant covalent structure. However, at the surface of the silica gel, the silicon atoms are attached to -OH groups.
So, at the surface of the silica gel you have Si-O-H bonds instead of Si-O-Si bonds. The diagram shows a small part of the silica surface.
The surface of the silica gel is very polar and, because of the -OH groups, can form hydrogen bonds with suitable compounds around it as well as van der Waals dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions.

How does paper chromatography work?

Although paper chromatography is simple to do, it is quite difficult to explain compared with thin layer chromatography. The explanation depends to some extent on what sort of solvent you are using, and many sources gloss over the problem completely.

The essential structure of paper:
Paper is made of cellulose fibres, and cellulose is a polymer of the simple sugar, glucose.

The key point about cellulose is that the polymer chains have -OH groups sticking out all around them. To that extent, it presents the same sort of surface as silica gel or alumina in thin layer chromatography.

It would be tempting to try to explain paper chromatography in terms of the way that different compounds are adsorbed to different extents on to the paper surface. In other words, it would be nice to be able to use the same explanation for both thin layer and paper chromatography. Unfortunately, it is more complicated than that!
The complication arises because the cellulose fibres attract water vapour from the atmosphere as well as any water that was present when the paper was made. You can therefore think of paper as being cellulose fibres with a very thin layer of water molecules bound to the surface.
It is the interaction with this water which is the most important effect during paper chromatography.
The other commonly used stationary phase is alumina - aluminium oxide. The aluminium atoms on the surface of this also have -OH groups attached. Anything we say about silica gel therefore applies equally to alumina

HOPE THIS HELPS . And sorry if it was too complex .

Look at Physics and maths tutor , Chem revise , A level Chemistry website .
Good luck with everything . <3<3
Thank you very much 🙏🏼
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Paper_in_ASHES
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(Original post by Kueno Oscar)
Thank you very much 🙏🏼
No problem 😊😊😊
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