All of them except Girton and Homerton. The closest are Newnham (which I presume isn't in contention for you!) and Selwyn, which are right on the doorstep of the Sidgwick site, where most of the Arts/Humanities lectures are. Then the very central colleges (eg, Clare, Caius, King's, Trinity, Trinity Hall, John's ...) are all less than 10 minutes' walk away, though you should bear in mind that in some of those you probably won't be living on the main site all the time and could be quite some distance away. Those colleges whose main sites are further away, like Jesus, Fitzwilliam, Churchill, are still only 20 minutes' walk. And you should also bear in mind that, while lots of your teaching will take place in the Faculty, you'll also have supervisions which might be in your own College but equally might well be in any College or other building in Cambridge.
Basically, as long as you're not applying to Girton or Homerton I wouldn't worry too much about it. Cambridge isn't that big, and contrary to popular opinion, it is possible to survive here without a bike. I can't ride a bike (no sense of balance!) and I walk everywhere, and it's perfectly doable.