Help Needed For Immunology Revision (Biology)

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glorydayes365
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#1
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#1
Attachment 883698

I’ve made a mind map of what I can remember about immunology. It’s for A Levels and I’m in year 12. We’ve only just started to learn about immunology.
The pencil is what I’ve written down first without looking at any notes and the blue ink is what I’ve added in after looking at my notes.
Can anyone please help me double check if what was written down is correct and are there anything to add to the mind map?
Thank you.
Last edited by glorydayes365; 2 years ago
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SarcAndSpark
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#2
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#2
Hi

Unfortunately, for me, that mind map is a bit small/impossible to read. It might also be useful to say what stage of education this is for!
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Reality Check
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#3
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(Original post by glorydayes365)
Attachment 883698

I’ve made a mind map of what I can remember about immunology.
The pencil is what I’ve written down first without looking at any notes and the blue ink is what I’ve added in after looking at my notes.
Can anyone please help me double check if what was written down is correct and are there anything to add to the mind map?
Thank you.
I agree with S&S - it's impossible to read.
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glorydayes365
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(Original post by SarcAndSpark)
Hi

Unfortunately, for me, that mind map is a bit small/impossible to read. It might also be useful to say what stage of education this is for!
It’s for A-Levels, I’m in year 12 now.
Should I type the mind map down?
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glorydayes365
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#5
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(Original post by Reality Check)
I agree with S&S - it's impossible to read.
Name:  A168D318-3130-4A86-86B9-EA8FB7E10970.jpg.jpeg
Views: 56
Size:  26.6 KB

I hope this is better, I took this picture on my phone and it looks clear, now I’m just adding this picture from my photos.
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Reality Check
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#6
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#6
(Original post by glorydayes365)
Name:  A168D318-3130-4A86-86B9-EA8FB7E10970.jpg.jpeg
Views: 56
Size:  26.6 KB

I hope this is better, I took this picture on my phone and it looks clear, now I’m just adding this picture from my photos.
Nope - I'm using a good screen on a macbook pro and it's still blurred.
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SarcAndSpark
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It's the size of the photo which is an issue, rather than the clarity of the original image. I'd try uploading it to imgur as their largest possible size.

However, from what I can read, depending on exam board, I think you probably need more detail about how how pathogens are recognised by the body.
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glorydayes365
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#8
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How come the picture quality is bad...

I’ll type it down.

This is what I’ve written down on that mind map:
Antigen: Proteins on cell surface which activated an immune response.
4 stages of immune response:
1) Phagocytosis
2) T cells
3) B cells
4) Plasma cells

Pathogen -> engulf by phagocyte -> present the antigens on the surface of the phagocyte -> activates T cells ->
1. T helper cells activated B cells -> B cells activated plasma cells -> plasma cells produces antibodies -> antibodies clumps up the pathogen -> phagocyte can engulf the pathogen all at once -> plasma cells produces memory cells
2. (Starting from “activates T cells”) activates cytotoxic T cells -> inject cytokine into phagocyte causing the pathogen to hydrolyse

And now this is what I’ve added to the mind map after reading my notes:
For the “b cells activates plasma cells” part, I corrected it to ‘b cells’ antibody forms an antigen-antibody complex with the pathogen’s antigen -> activated antigen-antibody complex B cell clones itself to make copies called plasma cells’

For the “plasma cells produces antibodies” part I’ve added ‘plasma cells produces monoclonal antibodies’

For the “antibodies clumps up the pathogen” part I labelled it as agglutination.

And finally for the “plasma cells produces memory cells” part I’ve corrected to ‘plasma cells are saved as memory b cells’.

Hope this is a lot clearer.
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glorydayes365
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#9
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(Original post by Reality Check)
Nope - I'm using a good screen on a macbook pro and it's still blurred.
I’ve typed my mind map down already, I hope it’s much clearer. Should be the second last comment of this post.
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glorydayes365
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(Original post by SarcAndSpark)
It's the size of the photo which is an issue, rather than the clarity of the original image. I'd try uploading it to imgur as their largest possible size.

However, from what I can read, depending on exam board, I think you probably need more detail about how how pathogens are recognised by the body.
Hey I’ve typed out my mind map already, it should be the last comment of this post. Thanks btw
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Reality Check
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#11
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(Original post by glorydayes365)
How come the picture quality is bad...

I’ll type it down.

This is what I’ve written down on that mind map:
Antigen: Proteins on cell surface which activated an immune response.
4 stages of immune response:
1) Phagocytosis
2) T cells
3) B cells
4) Plasma cells

Pathogen -> engulf by phagocyte -> present the antigens on the surface of the phagocyte -> activates T cells ->
1. T helper cells activated B cells -> B cells activated plasma cells -> plasma cells produces antibodies -> antibodies clumps up the pathogen -> phagocyte can engulf the pathogen all at once -> plasma cells produces memory cells
2. (Starting from “activates T cells”) activates cytotoxic T cells -> inject cytokine into phagocyte causing the pathogen to hydrolyse

And now this is what I’ve added to the mind map after reading my notes:
For the “b cells activates plasma cells” part, I corrected it to ‘b cells’ antibody forms an antigen-antibody complex with the pathogen’s antigen -> activated antigen-antibody complex B cell clones itself to make copies called plasma cells’

For the “plasma cells produces antibodies” part I’ve added ‘plasma cells produces monoclonal antibodies’

For the “antibodies clumps up the pathogen” part I labelled it as agglutination.

And finally for the “plasma cells produces memory cells” part I’ve corrected to ‘plasma cells are saved as memory b cells’.

Hope this is a lot clearer.
I agree with S&S - you need more on pathogen recognition. And what about opsonisation - there's nothing in your notes about that. PAMPS?

I'd also re-visit the bit about 'injecting cytokines into a phagocyte causing the pathogen to hydrolyse'. I appreciate that things have to be simplified at this level (immunology is a difficult subject) but this seems simplified to the point of being wrong. SarcAndSpark - what do they need to know about this at this level?
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glorydayes365
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[QUOTE=Reality Check;87465044]
Last edited by glorydayes365; 2 years ago
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glorydayes365
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#13
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(Original post by Reality Check)
I agree with S&S - you need more on pathogen recognition. And what about opsonisation - there's nothing in your notes about that. PAMPS?

I'd also re-visit the bit about 'injecting cytokines into a phagocyte causing the pathogen to hydrolyse'. I appreciate that things have to be simplified at this level (immunology is a difficult subject) but this seems simplified to the point of being wrong. SarcAndSpark - what do they need to know about this at this level?
My class have just started learning about immunology so it’s pretty much just the basics.
And just to add that I’m studying for a levels and I’m now in year 12.
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SarcAndSpark
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It depends on exam board, but there's some good-ish revision notes available here: http://www.a-levelnotes.co.uk/biolog...ne-system.html, here: https://pmt.physicsandmathstutor.com...%20A-Level.pdf and here: http://astarbiology.com/aqa/cell-rec...immune-system/

However, if you've just stated the topic, obviously you won't have covered all of this yet. It might be more useful to wait until the end of the topic to ask what's missing from your notes!
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SarcAndSpark
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(Original post by Reality Check)
I agree with S&S - you need more on pathogen recognition. And what about opsonisation - there's nothing in your notes about that. PAMPS?

I'd also re-visit the bit about 'injecting cytokines into a phagocyte causing the pathogen to hydrolyse'. I appreciate that things have to be simplified at this level (immunology is a difficult subject) but this seems simplified to the point of being wrong. SarcAndSpark - what do they need to know about this at this level?
Unfortunately, a lot of stuff at A-level is simplified to the point of being almost wrong. The genetics content is improving, but a lot of that is still massively over-simplified.

For some exam boards, all you need to know about Cytotoxic T-cells is that they seek out and destroy pathogens, as well as destroying cells which have been infected by viruses.
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Reality Check
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(Original post by SarcAndSpark)
For some exam boards, all you need to know about Cytotoxic T-cells is that they seek out and destroy pathogens, as well as destroying cells which have been infected by viruses.
Crikey - that really is simplified!
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SarcAndSpark
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(Original post by Reality Check)
Crikey - that really is simplified!
It varies a huge amount between specs. AQA, have immunology as part of their cells topic, so obviously it doesn't go into a huge amount of detail and the focus is more on cell recognition than specific immune responses. Whereas WJEC I think have a specific immunology and disease topic which I would expect to go into a lot more detail.
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username4881438
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(Original post by Reality Check)
Crikey - that really is simplified!
Oh lord I can't even deal with that amount of content already and that's simplified 😳
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glorydayes365
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(Original post by SarcAndSpark)
It depends on exam board, but there's some good-ish revision notes available here: http://www.a-levelnotes.co.uk/biolog...ne-system.html, here: https://pmt.physicsandmathstutor.com...%20A-Level.pdf and here: http://astarbiology.com/aqa/cell-rec...immune-system/

However, if you've just stated the topic, obviously you won't have covered all of this yet. It might be more useful to wait until the end of the topic to ask what's missing from your notes!
Thank you!
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glorydayes365
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(Original post by Reality Check)
Crikey - that really is simplified!
This topic is seriously killing me and realising that this is simplified I am so dead. Actually after my revision for today this topic to me is relatively easy... I think. I’m sure later on I’ll realise that I spoke too soon.
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