glorydayes365
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I really don’t know how to answer this question. Anything could help. Thanks.
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melissabrls
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Hi are you sure it's related to immunology? Instinctively I'd say it's related to natural selection, maybe look in to that?
If you have any more questions I'd be happy to help !
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glorydayes365
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(Original post by melissabrls)
Hi are you sure it's related to immunology? Instinctively I'd say it's related to natural selection, maybe look in to that?
If you have any more questions I'd be happy to help !
That’s the issue with A levels... they put questions like this which even makes me question is this even about immunology.
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glorydayes365
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(Original post by melissabrls)
Hi are you sure it's related to immunology? Instinctively I'd say it's related to natural selection, maybe look in to that?
If you have any more questions I'd be happy to help !
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And I’ve found the answer which I would’ve never thought of...

I hope this could help others with similar questions to this.
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melissabrls
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Aha I see, I'm actually a French biology student so I'm not the best when it comes to A levels....
I have a possible answer you'll definitely have to go over it and think about it more but it could simply be because the Nm are immune to the products because of natural selection. There was a population of Nm, with normal nm genes and nm with mutations which made them immune to the products however over the years, when using those products you got rid of all the "normal" nm which were sensitive to the products and that left you with only mutated nm which created a whole new population because they could only reproduce within themselves so you end up with only mutated nm which are resistant/imune to the penicillin and the others. Hope this makes sense, if not, tell me and I'll try and explain differently
Look up bacterial resistance on YouTube or google I'm sure that might also help you!
If you have other questions I'd love to help!
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Jpw1097
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(Original post by glorydayes365)
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And I’ve found the answer which I would’ve never thought of...

I hope this could help others with similar questions to this.
Seems like a reasonable answer. You could also talk about mechanisms of antibiotic resistance such as efflux pumps (proteins which pump out the antibiotic), production of penicillin degrading enzymes (penicillinase/beta lacatamase), modification of the binding site of the antibiotic, etc.
You could also talk about how bacteria can pass on these resistance genes to other bacteria by transferring plasmids to other bacteria - known as conjugation (a type of horizontal transfer).
Also, your answer doesn’t explain how these resistance bacteria become the dominant clones. Penicillin in this case exerts selection pressure - by killing those bacteria that are susceptible to penicillin, those bacteria that are resistant survive and proliferate, due to the availability of nutrients as they no longer have to compete with the penicillin-susceptible bacteria.
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