Silent_Ihsassin
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Hi I’m struggling to understand Ions and different types of bonding please can someone explain it. Maybe just first help explain Ions.

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username4633536
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I’ll keep this simple, but remember I am skipping over lots of important concepts that are taught at higher educations levels. At the top of your periodic table, you will see numbers above each column. These are group numbers. You should label what I am about to tell you on your periodic table so you don’t forget. You can assume that groups 1 and 2 have 1 and 2 electrons in their outer shell respectively, and groups 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 have 3,4,5,6,7,8 electrons in their outer shells respectively. Write +1 +2 +3 above groups 1, 2 and 13. These are the charges that each ion in that group will have (group 13 will have 3+ ions, etc). Groups 15, 16 and 17 will form 3-, 2- and 1- ions respectively (group 17 forms 1- ions). Group 18 will not form ions, and don’t worry about group 14 for now. Basically, elements have electrons in their outer shells, and you now know how many (as I’ve explained above). All elements want to have their outer shells filled with electrons, this is their most stable state. As a result, the non metals (with negative charges) can form bonds with metals (with the positive charges). This is an ionic bond. This occurs by movement of electrons. In group 17, chlorine for example has 7 electrons in its outer shell, and needs to gain an electron from another element. Group 1 element have 1 electron in their shell, and so the 1 electron in their outer shell will be transferred to the outer shell of the chlorine. Now, as the chlorine has an extra electron, it has a extra negative charge, but the same positive charge (as the proton number stays the same). This gives it a 1- charge. The metal has lost a negative charge (electron), giving it a 1+ charge. Now, as these so called ‘ions’ are oppositely charged, they attract. As you know from physics, opposites charges attract. This forms a strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charges ions (SEFBOCI). This strong force is you ‘ionic bond’. If you have any questions, let me know!
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Silent_Ihsassin
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chrismanning0711
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Ionic bonds are formed between oppositely charged ions, much like a magnet positive and negative are attracted. The ions become positively or negatively charged when the original atoms give each other electrons to get a full outer shell of electrons.

Metallic bonds are formed between positive metal ions and their delocalised electrons, the metal atoms lose their most outer electrons to get a full shell, these electrons then just ''float around'', because electrons are negative and the metal atoms lost electrons to form metal ions, the ''floating'' electrons are attracted to the metal ions formed from the metal ions losing their outer electrons, again like magnets positive and negative are attracted to each other.

Covalent bonds are formed when 2 elements that need more electrons share their electrons to get full outer shells, they both need the electrons so one cant just give electrons to the other like in ionic bonding so they share.
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Silent_Ihsassin
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