Sampling Techniques For A Research Project PLEASE HELP!

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Kakakaty
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I'm modifying an existing study (Yuki's study of emoticons). I have to write about what sampling technique I will use/How I'm going to collect my sample, can someone please explain what this is? I've researched but I keep finding different things and I'm not sure what to believe.
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emma543
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(Original post by Kakakaty)
I'm modifying an existing study (Yuki's study of emoticons). I have to write about what sampling technique I will use/How I'm going to collect my sample, can someone please explain what this is? I've researched but I keep finding different things and I'm not sure what to believe.
I'm not familiar with Yuki's study but I hopefully can help.

So when your looking at sampling techniques your referring to how you'll collect the people to take part. The option we are taught at A-Level are...
1) Opportunity sampling- take first people you come across i.e. if you are walking down the street you'll just choose the first 10 people you see.
Strengths-
Easiest method- can take the first participants you see.

Limitation
Biased- only representative of small proportion of the population i.e. if you did it Monday morning you would miss all the people who work

2) Random sampling- get a list of participants and assign them a number and then use a random number generator to select them.
Strength
No bias- why? Each person has an equal chance of being selected

Limitation
Time-consuming- why? you have to get a list of names and then contact each person as their names are selected

3) Volunteer sampling- advertise in a newspaper and let the participants put themselves forward to take part
Strengths
Ethical- why? already consented
Can be representative- why? gives access to a wide variety of people

Limitation
Volunteer bias- likely to be highly motivated or in need of money

4) Stratified sampling- take participants in proportion to their occurrence in the population i.e. if you were to take participants from your lesson and a 1/4 boys and 3/4 girls- make sure your participants show this.
Strength
Representative- why? reflects real population

Limitation
Time consuming

5) Systematic sampling- so take the nth number of participants using a predetermined system- i.e. every 5th person
Strength
Not biased

Limitation
Could be argued as bias if the starting number is not randomly generated


Hope this helps
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Kakakaty
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(Original post by emma543)
I'm not familiar with Yuki's study but I hopefully can help.

So when your looking at sampling techniques your referring to how you'll collect the people to take part. The option we are taught at A-Level are...
1) Opportunity sampling- take first people you come across i.e. if you are walking down the street you'll just choose the first 10 people you see.
Strengths-
Easiest method- can take the first participants you see.

Limitation
Biased- only representative of small proportion of the population i.e. if you did it Monday morning you would miss all the people who work

2) Random sampling- get a list of participants and assign them a number and then use a random number generator to select them.
Strength
No bias- why? Each person has an equal chance of being selected

Limitation
Time-consuming- why? you have to get a list of names and then contact each person as their names are selected

3) Volunteer sampling- advertise in a newspaper and let the participants put themselves forward to take part
Strengths
Ethical- why? already consented
Can be representative- why? gives access to a wide variety of people

Limitation
Volunteer bias- likely to be highly motivated or in need of money

4) Stratified sampling- take participants in proportion to their occurrence in the population i.e. if you were to take participants from your lesson and a 1/4 boys and 3/4 girls- make sure your participants show this.
Strength
Representative- why? reflects real population

Limitation
Time consuming

5) Systematic sampling- so take the nth number of participants using a predetermined system- i.e. every 5th person
Strength
Not biased

Limitation
Could be argued as bias if the starting number is not randomly generated


Hope this helps
Thankyou! Also, it says "Allocation to conditions" what does this mean?
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emma543
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(Original post by Kakakaty)
Thankyou! Also, it says "Allocation to conditions" what does this mean?
Its either referring to your experimental design...

1) Repeated measures design- the participants do all the conditions (all levels of IV)

Strengths
Controls participants variables- why? using same participants
Don't need as many participants

Limitations
Order effect (order of conditions effect the results)- this can be practise effect (may perform better on second condition as they have already done it before and so are less anxious) or it can be boredom effect (baso being bored)
May guess the purpose

2) Independent groups design- participants are placed in separate groups and do only one condition

Strengths
No order effects

Limitations
Need more participants
Participant variables cannot be controlled

3) Matched pairs design (probs the best one)- consists of two groups of participants but match participants on key characteristics believed to affect performance then allocated one participant from each pair to condition A and the other partner to condition B so if its emotions your measuring then match participants on similar mental states by using questionnaires to find out this.

Strengths
Controls most participant variables

Limitations
Cannot control all variables (impossible)
Time-consuming


You'll need to use counter-balancing for repeated measures and maybe matched pairs- counterbalancing is when participants do each condition first or second in equal amounts (this prevents order effect). There are two ways to do this I'll just describe one...

AB or BA
Divide participants into two groups.
1) Group 1: each participant does condition A then B
2) Group 2: each participant does condition B then A
Then compare group 2 and group 1 for condition A and then condition B

For all the experimental designs mainly matched pairs and independent groups design make sure to use random allocation to avoid bias...

So for independent groups design randomly assign participants to each condition and for matched pairs design randomly assign the participants from each pair to each condition.
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