mrkrabs19
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i have an exam question can anyone give their opinions please
explain different views on human nature between conservatives , liberals and socialists and how these views influence their core ideas.
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NellieTheElegant
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Here's everything I know

Liberals:
• Liberalism's optimistic view of human nature emerged from the Enlightenment and opposed the religious view that humankind is imperfect and flawed
• John Locke argued that humans are naturally free, equal and independent, and are not naturally under the authority of any other body or person.
• Liberals believe that humans are rational and tolerant, that we are understanding and respect others. Disputes and disagreements are settled with rational discussion
• HOWEVER! Liberal thinkers like Green and Friedan began to see this view as too optimistic and argued that the state needs to intervene to tackle inequality
• Friedan specifically argued that human nature, left unchecked, had produced gender inequality and thus stopped women from achieving individual happiness
• All liberals have an optimistic view of human nature and view humans as morally equal, independent and rational
• They believe that individualism needs to be protected and promoted
• Classical liberals and neo-liberals believe that individuals develop best when left free to pursue their own happiness
• Modern liberals have the view that rationalism needs to be developed and that individualism is more a reflection of what humans can become via education, rather than simply what they are

Conservatives:
• Conservatives support the view that freedom and choice for the individual are important
• But conservatives also argue that the state needs to provide stability and order for this freedom and choice to exist, thus they support strong law and order measures
• Traditional conservatives support a more interventionalist state to protect the 'organic' society
• Most conservatives (except New Right thinkers) have a pessimistic view of human nature, they stress the fallibility and weakness of human nature
• Conservatives therefore argue that the perfect society is unachievable and dangerous as humans are selfish and run on a desire for power

Socialists:
• Socialism has tended to favour the view that humans are social beings, naturally fraternal, cooperative and communal
• They see human nature as flexible and able to be shaped by social circumstances
• Humans change as their circumstances change
• Marx and Engels argued that human nature is not fixed and cannot be understood independently of society
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mrkrabs19
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(Original post by NellieTheElegant)
Here's everything I know

Liberals:
• Liberalism's optimistic view of human nature emerged from the Enlightenment and opposed the religious view that humankind is imperfect and flawed
• John Locke argued that humans are naturally free, equal and independent, and are not naturally under the authority of any other body or person.
• Liberals believe that humans are rational and tolerant, that we are understanding and respect others. Disputes and disagreements are settled with rational discussion
• HOWEVER! Liberal thinkers like Green and Friedan began to see this view as too optimistic and argued that the state needs to intervene to tackle inequality
• Friedan specifically argued that human nature, left unchecked, had produced gender inequality and thus stopped women from achieving individual happiness
• All liberals have an optimistic view of human nature and view humans as morally equal, independent and rational
• They believe that individualism needs to be protected and promoted
• Classical liberals and neo-liberals believe that individuals develop best when left free to pursue their own happiness
• Modern liberals have the view that rationalism needs to be developed and that individualism is more a reflection of what humans can become via education, rather than simply what they are

Conservatives:
• Conservatives support the view that freedom and choice for the individual are important
• But conservatives also argue that the state needs to provide stability and order for this freedom and choice to exist, thus they support strong law and order measures
• Traditional conservatives support a more interventionalist state to protect the 'organic' society
• Most conservatives (except New Right thinkers) have a pessimistic view of human nature, they stress the fallibility and weakness of human nature
• Conservatives therefore argue that the perfect society is unachievable and dangerous as humans are selfish and run on a desire for power

Socialists:
• Socialism has tended to favour the view that humans are social beings, naturally fraternal, cooperative and communal
• They see human nature as flexible and able to be shaped by social circumstances
• Humans change as their circumstances change
• Marx and Engels argued that human nature is not fixed and cannot be understood independently of society
thankyou !!
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HEWITTMAESTRO
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(Original post by mrkrabs19)
thankyou !!
Might also impress whoever’s marking if you make a reference to some of the books written by the philosophical thinkers. So for Conservatism, you could make reference to Thomas Hobbes “Leviathan” and how he viewed life in the state of nature as “short and brutish”, linking in to the pessimistic view on human nature. And for liberalism you could talk about John Stuart Mill’s “on liberty”.
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