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Social class differences in achievement can be seen at all levels of the education
system, from pupils’ performance in primary school to the likelihood of their
going to university. Many sociologists believe differences in pupils’ home
backgrounds are the main cause of these class differences in achievement. For
example, better-off middle-class parents may be more likely to adopt parenting
practices that encourage intellectual development and to involve themselves
more in their children’s schooling.
However, other sociologists see factors within schools as more important. Some
sociologists also argue that home background and school factors are often
Applying material from Item A and your knowledge, evaluate the view that social
class differences in educational achievement are mainly caused by differences in
pupils’ home backgrounds.