username5396224
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#1
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Hey i was wondering so enzymes break up substrate moleclules into smaller molecules so how exactly does this speed up the reaction (i searched it up and it says it lowers activation energy required) but how and why?I am newly learning this so if you write using simpler terminology it would be helpful.
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emma963
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When the substrate enters the active site of the enzyme a strain is put on the substrate bond which means that the bonds holding the substrate together are broken more easily.
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username5396224
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#3
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so does this mean the substrate molcules can take part in reactions more easily??because aren't they broken up already
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emma963
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(Original post by dog25)
so does this mean the substrate molcules can take part in reactions more easily??because aren't they broken up already
The breakdown (or build-up) of substrates is the reaction.
Take digestion, for example, the enzymes break down the large molecules (eg proteins) into smaller more digestible molecules (eg amino acids).
Without the enzyme, the reactions to break down these molecules would be too slow to maintain life.
The substrate which are being broken down are larger so will be broken down into much smaller components.
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username5396224
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#5
Report Thread starter 7 months ago
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ohhhhhh so enzymes break down the substrates effectively so it basically makes the molecules smaller ?but sorry if the substrate molecules are smaller why does it mean the molecules can take part in reactions faster
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emma963
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Some of the substrate can be quite large such as a protein which have to be broken down further. (Eg lipids broken down to glycogen and fatty acids)

The main aim of an enzyme is to break any bonds between the building blocks of a substrate into the smallest component it could be.
The smaller substrate can be absorbed by the body and then used in other reactions (break down of starch/glycogen produces glucose which is used in respiration.)

The breaking down of the substrate is the reaction (breaking down is hydrolysis) (eg ATP hydrase breaking a bond to release energy)

Enzymes are biological catalyst- they increase the rate of reaction without being used up.
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