rizfah irshad
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My history coursework is on the Holocaust and I'm doing was the holocaust premeditated but I need good texts that I can get my research from
any suggestions?
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wickeralligator
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'The Destruction of the European Jews' by Raul Hilberg, 'The Unwritten Order: Hitler's Role in the Final Solution' by Peter Longerich, and 'Hitler's Willing Executioners' by Daniel Goldhagen all offer different interpretations of whether the Holocaust was premediated or not + are the texts I'm using for my own history coursework
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rizfah irshad
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(Original post by wickeralligator)
'The Destruction of the European Jews' by Raul Hilberg, 'The Unwritten Order: Hitler's Role in the Final Solution' by Peter Longerich, and 'Hitler's Willing Executioners' by Daniel Goldhagen all offer different interpretations of whether the Holocaust was premediated or not + are the texts I'm using for my own history coursework
Thank you so much! How far are you into your coursework?
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tinygirl96
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Perhaps try finding some articles on wwII and the Holocaust online. That way you can summarise the article using your own words. Also see if you can find history books on the Holocaust as well.
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Pengwyn<3
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My sixth-form had to rotate topic so these are the 60-ish sources the previous class had to select from. It's in pdf so this... will be very long for me to copy onto here

1. From ‘Years of Weimar and the Third Reich’ by David Evans and Jane Jenkins (Hodder & Stoughton 1999)
Two of the Nazis 25 Points, 1920:
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4. Only members of the nation can be citizens of the state. Only a person of German blood can be a member of the nation. No Jew, therefore, can be a member of the nation.
5. Anyone who is not a citizen of the state may live in Germany only as a guest.

C. Zuckmayer, an early Nazi supporter, describing Nazi rallies in the early 1920s. He was writing his memoirs in 1938 after Hitler had become the leader of Germany:
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Hitler knew how to whip up those crowds jammed closely in a dense cloud of cigarette smoke - not by argument, but by his manner: the roaring and screeching and especially the power of repetition delivered in a certain infectious rhythm… He would draw up a list of real or imaginary evils and abuses and scream, in higher and higher crescendo: 'And whose fault is it? It's all... the fault... of the Jews!'

The beer mugs would swiftly take up the beat, crashing down on the wooden tables, and hundreds of voices, shrill and female or male beer-bellied, repeated the idiotic line.

2. From ‘Weimar and Nazi Germany’ by John Hite and Chris Hinton (John Murray Publishers 2000)
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Stormtrooper marching songs of the period are indicative and must have been especially macabre when sung noisily and cheerfully (108):

Hitler is our leader

And spurns their proffered bribes,
He'll kick the faithless Jewish swine
Back to their heathen tribes.

Or again (109):

Load the empty rifles,
Polish the gleaming knives,
Strike down the Jewish traitors
Who juggle with our lives.

3. A letter written by Adolf Hitler to his military superior Adolf Gemlich (September 16, 1919)
Taken from www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org

Background to the source:
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Hitler returned from a military hospital to Munich in early 1919. There he underwent a Reichswehr
sponsored course of systematic political education for demobilizing soldiers that featured German
nationalism, anti-Semitism, and anti*socialism. Herr Adolf Gemlich had occasion to send an inquiry about the importance of the "Jewish question" to Captain Karl Mayr, the officer in charge of the Reichswehr News and Enlightenment Department in Munich. Mayr referred him to Hitler, who had distinguished himself in the above* mentioned course by the vehemence of his radical nationalist and anti-Semitic views, and by his oratorical talents. Hitler was already feeling his way toward a political career; four days before responding to Gemlich in the letter translated below, he had paid his first visit to the German Workers' Party
(eventually renamed, the National Socialist Workers' Party) as a confidential agent of the Reichswehr.

In the letter to Gemlich he appears anxious to establish his credentials as a knowledgeable and sober
anti-Semite. Compared to the inflammatory mass*-meeting oratory that he was soon to make his speciality, Hitler's rhetoric here is quite tame, stressing the need for a "rational" and "scientific" anti-Semitism. Some historians have interpreted the letter's call for the "irrevocable removal [Entfernung]" of the Jews from German life as a prefiguring of the Holocaust. The letter, Hitler's first explicitly political writing, impressed his Reichswehr superiors and he soon gained a reputation among radical and socially respectable nationalist conservative groups as a man who could help inoculate the masses against revolution and whose anti-Semitic rhetoric could help discredit the democratic Weimar Republic.

Source:
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Dear Herr Gemlich,

The danger posed by Jewry for our people today finds expression in the undeniable aversion of wide
sections of our people. The cause of this aversion is not to be found in a clear recognition of the
consciously or unconsciously systematic and pernicious effect of the Jews as a totality upon our
nation. Rather, it arises mostly from personal contact and from the personal impression which the
individual Jew leaves** almost always an unfavourable one. For this reason, anti-Semitism is too
easily characterized as a mere emotional phenomenon. And yet this is incorrect. Anti-Semitism as a
political movement may not and cannot be defined by emotional impulses, but by recognition of the
facts.

The facts are these: First, Jewry is absolutely a race and not a religious association. Even the Jews
never designate themselves as Jewish Germans, Jewish Poles, or Jewish Americans but always as
German, Polish, or American Jews. Jews have never yet adopted much more than the language of
the foreign nations among whom they live. A German who is forced to make use of the French
language in France, Italian in Italy, Chinese in China does not thereby become a Frenchman, Italian,
or Chinaman. It's the same with the Jew who lives among us and is forced to make use of the
German language. He does not thereby become a German. Neither does the Mosaic faith, so
important for the survival of this race, settle the question of whether someone is a Jew or non*-Jew.
There is scarcely a race whose members belong exclusively to just one definite religion.

Through thousands of years of the closest kind of inbreeding, Jews in general have maintained their
race and their peculiarities far more distinctly than many of the peoples among whom they have
lived. And thus comes the fact that there lives amongst us a non* German, alien race which neither
wishes nor is able to sacrifice its racial character or to deny its feeling, thinking, and striving.
Nevertheless, it possesses all the political rights we do. If the ethos of the Jews is revealed in the
purely material realm, it is even clearer in their thinking and striving. Their dance around the
golden calf is becoming a merciless struggle for all those possessions we prize most highly on
earth.

The value of the individual is no longer decided by his character or by the significance of his
achievements for the totality but exclusively by the size of his fortune, by his money. The loftiness of
a nation is no longer to be measured by the sum of its moral and spiritual powers, but rather by the
wealth of its material possessions. This thinking and striving after money and power, and the
feelings that go along with it, serve the purposes of the Jew who is unscrupulous in the choice of
methods and pitiless in their employment.

He destroys the character of princes with byzantine flattery, national pride (the strength of a
people), with ridicule and shameless breeding to depravity. His method of battle is that public
opinion which is never expressed in the press but which is nonetheless managed and falsified by it.
His power is the power of money, which multiplies in his hands effortlessly and endlessly through
interest, and which forces peoples under the most dangerous of yokes. Its golden glitter, so
attractive in the beginning, conceals the ultimately tragic consequences. Everything men strive after
as a higher goal, be it religion, socialism, democracy, is to the Jew only means to an end, the way to
satisfy his lust for gold and domination. In his effects and consequences, he is like a racial
tuberculosis of the nations.

The deduction from all this is the following: an anti-Semitism based on purely emotional grounds
will find its ultimate expression in the form of the pogrom.[1] An anti-Semitism based on reason, however, must lead to systematic legal combating and elimination of the privileges of the Jews, that which distinguishes the Jews from the other aliens who live among us (an Aliens Law). The ultimate objective [of such legislation] must, however, be the irrevocable removal of the Jews in general. For both these ends a government of national strength, not of national weakness, is
necessary.

Adolf Hitler

4. An extract from a speech delivered by Hitler in Salzburg in Austria on 7 or 8 August 1920 at an NSDAP meeting.
Taken from www.ess.uwe.ac.uk, a website from the University of the West of England that compiles academic resources on the Holocaust.
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"This is the first demand we must raise and do [reversal of the Versailles Treaty
provisions]: that our people be set free, that these chains be burst asunder, that Germany
be once again captain of her soul and master of her destinies, together with all those who
want to join Germany. (Applause) And the fulfillment of this first demand will then open
up the way for all the other reforms.

And here is one thing that perhaps distinguishes us from you [Austrians] as far as our
programme is concerned, although it is very much in the spirit of things: our attitude to
the Jewish problem. For us, this is not a problem you can turn a blind eye to-one to be
solved by small concessions. For us, it is a problem of whether our nation can ever recover
its health, whether the Jewish spirit can ever really be eradicated. Don't be misled into
thinking you can fight a disease without killing the carrier, without destroying the bacillus.
Don't think you can fight racial tuberculosis without taking care to rid the nation of the
carrier of that racial tuberculosis. This Jewish contamination will not subside, this
poisoning of the nation will not end, until the carrier himself, the Jew, has been banished
from our midst.

5. Extract from an NSDAP leaflet written in 1920 (taken from Modern World History Evidence and Empathy: The Rise of Hitler by John Simkin – Spartacus Educational, 1986)
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There is a secret world conspiracy, which while speaking much about humanity and
tolerance, in reality wants only to harness the people to an new yoke… The leaders are big
capitalists… 300 big bankers, financiers and press barons, who are interconnected across
the world, are the real dictators. They belong almost exclusively to the ‘chosen people’…
Shake off your Jewish leaders, and those in the pay of Judas!.... And one final point. Don’t
expect anything from Bolshevism. It does not bring the worker freedom. In Russia their
eight-hour day has been abolished. There are no more workers’ councils. All cower under
the dictatorship of a hundred government commissars, who are nine-tenths Jewish.
Bolshevism is a Jewish swindle.

6. Extract from Hitler's conversation with journalist Josef Hell in 1922, recorded in ‘Adolf Hitler’ by John Toland (London: Book Club Associates, 1977) p.116

When Hell asked Hitler what he intended doing if he ever had full freedom of action
against the Jews, his response was:
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"If I am ever really in power, the destruction of the Jews will be my first and most
important job. As soon as I have power, I shall have gallows after gallows erected, for
example, in Munich on the Marienplatz-as many of them as traffic allows. Then the Jews
will be hanged one after another, and they will stay hanging until they stink. They will stay
hanging as long as hygienically possible. As soon as they are untied, then the next group
will follow and that will continue until the last Jew in Munich is exterminated. Exactly the
same procedure will be followed in other cities until Germany is cleansed of the last Jew!"

7. A speech by Hitler to members of the Nazi Party given on 18th September 1922.
www.humanitas-international.org
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“. . . ECONOMICS is a secondary matter. World history teaches us that no people became great through economics: it was economics that brought them to their ruin. A people died when its race was
disintegrated. Germany, too, did not become great through economics.

A people that in its own life has lost honor becomes politically defenseless, and then becomes enslaved also in the economic sphere. Internationalization today means only Judaization. We in Germany have come to this: that a sixty-million people sees its destiny to lie at the will of a few dozen Jewish bankers. This was possible only because our civilization had first been Judaized. No salvation is possible until the bearer of disunion, the Jew, has been rendered powerless to harm:

1. We must call to account the November criminals of 1918. It cannot be that two million Germans should have fallen in vain and that afterwards one should sit down as friends at the same table with traitors. No, we do not pardon, we demand - Vengeance!

2. The dishonoring of the nation must cease. For betrayers of their Fatherland and informers the gallows is the proper place. Our streets and squares shall once more bear the names of our heroes; they shall not be named after Jews. In the Question of Guilt we must proclaim the truth.

3. The administration of the State must be cleared of the rabble which is fattened at the stall of the parties.

4. The present laxity in the fight against usury must be abandoned. Here the fitting punishment is the same
as that for the betrayers of their Fatherland.

5. WE MUST DEMAND A GREAT ENLIGHTENMENT ON THE SUBJECT OF THE PEACE TREATY. WITH THOUGHTS OF LOVE? NO! BUT IN HOLY HATRED AGAINST THOSE WHO HAVE RUINED US.

6. The lies which would veil from us cur misfortunes must cease. The fraud of the present money-madness must be shown up. That will stiffen the necks of us all.

7. AS FOUNDATION FOR A NEW CURRENCY THE PROPERTY OF THOSE WHO ARE NOT OF OUR BLOOD MUST DO SERVICE. If families who have lived in Germany for a thousand years are now expropriated, we must do the same to the Jewish usurers.

8. WE DEMAND IMMEDIATE EXPULSION OF ALL JEWS WHO HAVE ENTERED GERMANY SINCE 1914, and of all those, too, who through trickery on the Stock Exchange or through other shady transactions have gained their wealth.

9. The housing scarcity must be relieved through energetic action; houses must be granted to those who deserve them. Eisner said in 1918 that we had no right to demand the return of our prisoners - he was only saying openly what all Jews were thinking. People who so think must feel how life tastes in a concentration camp!

Extremes must be fought by extremes. Against the infection of materialism, against the Jewish pestilence we must hold aloft a flaming ideal. And if others speak of the World and Humanity we say the Fatherland - and only the Fatherland!

8. From ‘Mein Kampf’ by Adolf Hitler written in 1924 whilst he was serving time in prison
after the failed Munich Putsch (Jaico Publishing House, 2007 Edition).
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“The existence of our own nation is a thousand times more important to us than an alien
race…. Had we put under poison gas before the [First World] War or during its course
12,000 or 15,000 or more of those Hebrew [Jewish] corrupters, we would have saved a
million German lives so dear for the future.”

9. Selections from ‘Mein Kampf' by Adolf Hitler written in 1924 whilst he was serving time in
prison after the failed Munich Putsch. From ‘Years of Weimar and the Third Reich’ by
David Evans and Jane Jenkins (Hodder & Stoughton 1999)

A 'The Unclean Jew'
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The cleanliness of this people, moral and otherwise, I must say is a point in itself. I often grew sick to my stomach from the smell of these caftan [long-sleeved robe] wearers. In addition to their physical uncleanliness, you discovered the moral stains of this ‘chosen people’.

...Was there any form of filth or profligacy [excess]. particularly in cultural life, without at least one Jew involved in it?

...If you cut even cautiously into such an abscess, you found [the Jew] like a maggot in a rotting body, often dazzled by the sudden light

B 'The Jews and Ne.groes who defile the white race'
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With satanic joy in his face, the black haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people. With every means he tries to destroy the racial foundation of the people he has set out to control. It was and is the Jews who bring the *****es into the Rhineland, always with the same secret thought and clear aim of ruining the hated white race by the necessarily resulting *******isation.

C 'The end of the Jews'
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The aim is not only the freedom of the peoples oppressed by the Jew, but also the end of this parasite upon the nations. After the death of his victim, the vampire sooner or later dies too.

10. From ‘Mein Kampf’ by Adolf Hitler written in 1924 whilst he was serving time in prison
after the failed Munich Putsch. www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org
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If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the
world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did
thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men. Eternal Nature inexorably
avenges the infringement of her commands. Hence today I believe that I am acting in
accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I
am fighting for the work of the Lord

11. From ‘Mein Kampf’ by Adolf Hitler written in 1924 whilst he was serving time in prison
after the failed Munich Putsch. www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org
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Here he stops at nothing, and in his vileness he becomes so gigantic that no one need be
surprised if among our people the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil
assumes the living shape of the Jew. The ignorance of the broad masses about the inner
nature of the Jew, the lack of instinct and narrow-mindedness of our upper classes, make
the people an easy victim for this Jewish campaign of lies. While from innate cowardice
the upper classes turn away from a man whom the Jew attacks with lies and slander, the
broad masses from stupidity or simplicity believe everything. The state authorities either
cloak themselves in silence or, what usually happens, in order to put an end to the Jewish
press campaign, they persecute the unjustly attacked, which, in the eyes of such an official
ass, passes as the preservation of state authority and the safeguarding of law and order.

Slowly fear and the Marxist weapon of Jewry descend like a nightmare on the mind and
soul of decent people. They begin to tremble before the terrible enemy and thus have
become his final victim.

12. Extract from Julius Streicher’s speech to the Bavarian Parliament in Nuremburg on 3
April 1925 taken from www.holocaustresearchproject.org
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"You must realize that the, Jew wants our people to perish. That is why you must join us
and leave those who have brought you nothing but war inflation and discord. For
thousands of years the Jew has been destroying the nations. Let us make a new beginning
today so that we can annihilate the Jew."

13. From a speech by Julius Streicher on 26th June 1925 in the Bavarian Parliament. Taken from "Kampf dem Weltfeind“ (‘Battle against the world enemy’), Page 49.
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We National-Socialists demand that our children are instructed by German teachers only.
We know that Jewish children are being educated quite differently by their parents from
German children. The Jewish children are being taught that they belong to a chosen race
but that the German children belong to a race which is equal to cattle. Considering this
fact, it is obvious to us National Socialists that we shall never place German children in the
same classroom with Jewish children.

The Jew considers not only the individual but the whole nation as cattle. These workers
who are in the Communist party do not know yet that they with all their idealism, are tools
of this race, which strives after nothing else but world domination. The mere fact that the
Jew has been living in Germany for ages does not mean a thing. The Jew belongs to a
foreign race and his aims are of alien character. Therefore, he must not have the same
rights as we have. The Jew should educate his children in Jewish schools

A National-German school must teach racial doctrine. Just as animals belong to various
races so are human beings different from one another. The distinction has been made by
God. But it is not only the colour which decides the difference between us and other races,
it is the blood. We National Socialists demand that all pupils from the grammar to high
school be enlightened regarding the differences between the races. This will clear the way
for the realization that the Jew is not a German but a man of alien race.

The final battle with the international power of the world Jewry is imminent. We shall win
the battle only when we give up the petty party struggle and become a united nation. It
will become a fact when we Germans realize the extent of the damage already caused by
the Jewish fungus. At the moment when we have freed ourselves internally from the Jewish
power as well as from the Jewish idea of domination the way to reconciliation with other
non-Jewish nations will lie open.

I have always been firmly convinced that we deserve our future only when we have the
courage to describe the race which crucified Christ as the enemy of the world.

14. Dr Ernst Hanfstaengl, a close friend of Hitler’s, writing in the Chillicothe Constitution Tribune (an American newspaper) on March 27th 1933. Hanfstaengl fell out with Goebbles and Hitler during the Nazi consolidation of power and later defected to the Allies during the Second World War. (taken from http://izquotes.com/quote/234828)
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"The Jews who already have been ousted were put out because they were morally and
politically unfit to safeguard German interests…..Jews will continue to be ousted [from
influential position in German society] until the house is cleaned……..if a pogrom had
been necessary it would all have been over now.”

15. Extract from Hitler’s Interview in the New York Staatszeitung (a German language American newspaper), 1933. (Quoted in N H Baynes, The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, Oxford University Press, 1942, Volume I, pp.727-28)
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"Why does the world shed crocodile’s tears over the richly merited fate of a small
Jewish minority? … I ask Roosevelt, I ask the American people: Are you prepared to
receive in your midst these well-poisoners of the German people and the universal
spirit of Christianity? We would willingly give everyone of them a free steamer-ticket
and a thousand-mark note for travelling expenses, if we could get rid of them."

16. From ‘Mein Kampf’ by Adolf Hitler written in 1924 whilst he was serving time in prison after the failed Munich Putsch. Taken from the website of Hanover College History Dept.
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The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their
power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda
must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these in slogans until the last
member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan. As
soon as you sacrifice this slogan and try to be many-sided, the effect will piddle away, for
the crowd can neither digest nor retain the material offered. In this way the result is
weakened and in the end entirely cancelled out.

Thus we see that propaganda must follow a simple line and correspondingly the basic
tactics must be psychologically sound... What, for example, would we say about a poster
that was supposed to advertise a new soap and that described other soaps as 'good'?
We would only shake our heads. Exactly the same applies to political advertising.

The function of propaganda is, for example, not to weigh and ponder the rights of
different people, but exclusively to emphasize the one right which it has set out to argue
for. Its task is not to make an objective study of the truth, in so far as it favours the
enemy, and then set it before the masses with academic fairness; its task is to serve our
own right, always and unflinchingly.

17. An article by Achim Gerke from May 1933 about how to solve the “Jewish Question,” taken from the Nazi Party’s theoretical journal.

It proposes a “Zionist” solution to the “Jewish Question.” Achim Gercke had been a Nazi official before 1933. As a student, he had attempted to develop a card index listing all Jews in Germany. In April 1933, he was appointed to the Ministry of the Interior, where he served as an expert on racial matters. His
article outlined Nazi public thinking on what to do about the Jews at the beginning of the Third Reich, which
includes expelling them all from Germany. The source notes that the early Nazi laws restricting Jewish laws were provisional measures that indicated the direction future measures would take.

Solving the Jewish Question:
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As a result of the victory of the National Socialist revolution, the Jewish Question has become a problem for those who never before thought about solving the Jewish Question, who never fought to solve it. Everyone has seen that the current situation is intolerable. Allowing free development and equality for the Jews has led to an “unfree” situation of exploited competition, and to a handing over of important positions within the German people to those
of a foreign race.

The result is that anyone who thinks about this question looks for a solution. Everyone has a proposal on his desk, which gets a more or less favourable reaction in discussions. That was to be expected. But the solution to so important a problem is not as easy as is often supposed.


The legal measures that have just been issued by the government are cleansing actions that adroitly respond to Judah’s declaration of war. Primarily, the laws provide a direction in which to move. One should not underestimate the significance of these laws. The entire people will be educated about the Jewish Question and will come to understand that a people’s community is a community of blood. For the first time, they will be reached by racial thinking and will be focused not on theoretical solutions to the Jewish Question, but rather on a real solution.


Nevertheless, these temporary measures cannot be a final solution to the Jewish Question since the time is not yet ripe, although the laws point out the direction and leave room for any future developments. It would, however, be too early to work out plans for public discussion of ideas which propose to do more than can currently be done. Nonetheless, a few principles must be laid out so that the plans one makes can mature and mistakes can be avoided.


Fundamentally, one must decide whether or not to bring the Jews in Germany (as well as those of Jewish descent) together organizationally. Many plans announced so far propose to bring the Jews together in a federation so that they can be kept under watch and influenced. All of these proposals are fundamentally in error. Were one to establish a federation of the Jews, whether under some kind of Jewish overseer or in some sort of federation or other innocent-looking structure, the Jews would have an eternal legal anchor in Germany, a way to present their wishes, a tool for their goals, a legal way to secure secret links. And one would give at least the impression that one was dealing with a national minority that could seek, and would find, support outside Germany. One may not give
even the superficial appearance of supporting such an attitude toward the Jewish Question.


All proposals that include a permanent presence, a permanent regulation of the Jews in Germany, do not solve the Jewish Question, for they do not eliminate the Jews from Germany. And that is what we want to do. If the Jews are able to exploit their host peoples forever, they will remain a constant source of the open, destructive flame of Bolshevism, making it easy to repeatedly kindle it again, not to mention the political uncertainties resulting from disunity within the people and the danger to racial unity. Let us swear off such thinking forever, whether it results from poor thinking or evil intentions. To summarize, the state can and must focus on systematical elimination, on emigration.


If we destroy any organizational cooperation of the Jews and expel the dangerous, subversive Jewish agitators who show any signs of conspiratorial activities, the Jews will still have the synagogue, the rabbi, to shield them. If we support Zionist plans and attempt an international solution by establishing a homeland for the Jews, we will be able to solve the Jewish Question not only in Germany, but in Europe and the entire world. The entire world has an interest in such a solution, on eliminating this source of disorder, which constantly proceeds from Bolshevism. We must establish that clearly.



Plans and programs must have a goal pointing to the future. They may not be focused only on a temporarily unpleasant situation. A better future demands the systematic solution of the Jewish Question, not the organization of the Jews. We must build our state without the Jews. They can be only stateless foreigners among us, with no legal permanent standing. Only so will Ahasver [the legendary wandering Jew] be forced to take up his walking stick again, and then turn it into axes and spades.

18. An article by Johann von Leers from May 1933 about how to solve the “Jewish Question,” taken from the Nazi Party’s theoretical journal. Von Leers was one of the most prolific Nazi anti-Semites.

After the war, he fled to Italy and Argentina, eventually ending up in Egypt, where he converted to Islam and remained an active anti-Semitic propagandist until his death in 1965. His article proposes the removal of all Jews from Europe. His article specifically rejects “extermination” as the solution.

The End of Jewish Migration:
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The Jewish problem is a migrating problem that has moved over the centuries from one European region to another. One can speak of a certain degree of saturation with the Jewish population in individual regions. If this degree of saturation is reached or exceeded, the affected Gentile peoples always take the same defensive measures. They attempt to reduce Jewish influence, to hinder Jewish corruption of their cultural and business life, or to reverse it if it has already occurred. Often, the first step is a clear realization that the Jews are a foreign element. Those countries not simultaneously affected by the problem tend to misunderstand these defensive measures, and as far as it is in their political interests, or to the extent that they are under Jewish influence, speak of “barbarism.” When the emigrating Jewish masses show up by them, the whole course of events often repeats itself. Similar defensive measures appear in the second country, while in the first country the fighting spirit against the Jews has calmed down — and thus the misunderstandings continue.


No one who understands the situation will be able to deny that the cause of these defensive measures lies primarily in the Jewish people itself. Even with the greatest degree of impartiality, one will conclude that one is dealing with a group of people that is on average highly unpleasant. That may not stop one from looking at the question clearly.


It is questionable to even speak of a “Jewish people,” since there is only a limited and widely varied sense of real consciousness of being a people. There is a continuum ranging from the most convinced Zionists down to assimilated Jews, so that it is better to speak of Jewry as a group of humans in which there is a strong drive to establish a genuine people. Given the extent of Jewish migration, there are two things one must keep in mind. First, it is wrong to see Jewry as an already existing people, and thus treat them as one would treat an ethnic minority.
Second, if one is to seriously solve the problem, one must take into account Jewry’s inner drive to build its own people.


From century to century, Europe has always had outbursts of anti-Semitism, and from good and justified desires to defend Gentile peoples against an indigestible Jewry. We cannot, therefore, be satisfied with a solution that simply moves the Jews from one country to another over the centuries. This can only strengthen the dangerous Jewish ability to carry on its policies within states, building transnational power. Furthermore, there always remain strong Jewish groups, the result of race mixing and assimilation within the respective peoples, which increase racial decline. Instead, one must find an affirmative solution that frees Europe of wandering Jewish masses.


This is not a matter of small numbers, as statistics demonstrate. According to the Zeitschrift für Demokratie (sic) und Statistik der Juden (Berlin), there were around 15 million Jews in the world at the end of 1931. There were 9.8 million in Europe, of whom 3.1 million were in Poland, 3.0 million in Rumania, 0.6 million in Germany, 0.5 million in Hungary, and 0.4 million in Czechoslovakia. Since these figures include only Jews by religious confession, these
figures are probably low. Even those numbers, however, include millions of so-called “bums” (Luftmenschen), impoverished peddlers and Eastern European tradesmen, population groups that are ready whenever the borders open to leave their Polish and Lithuanian ghettos and flood into Europe. As long as the pressure from these Jewish millions exists the Jewish Question in Europe will not be resolved, but rather will necessarily continue.


Even if a political movement and a people have had the worst experiences with Jewry, it could contradict the German Nordic sense of history to see a negative solution as the way to defend against the Jewish masses. Instead, the entirety of our historical mission demands a grand and comprehensive approach that will also appeal to the opponent.


Zionism assumes that it can build a new Jewish people from the many Jewish individuals. It has, however, some justice in demanding a territorial foundation for its development. Palestine is unable to absorb the coming Jewish masses since it cannot support them, nor is it the right location. Furthermore, England has to consider both the native Arabic population and the world-wide Islamic community, which makes it impossible to settle even a reasonably significant part of the Jewish masses there.


Only a barbarian standing outside of the last great divine manifestation of world history would propose a general anti-Semitic battle aimed at the extermination of this people. The goal of the highly developed peoples is not to promote hatred where there is a decent way to solve the problem. The only imaginable, positive solution that will finally resolve the Jewish problem in Europe and at the same time provide the real possibility of becoming a people, of becoming rooted to land, and even perhaps allowing its less valuable elements to be influenced by the more valuable elements, is a healthy region outside Europe. The Dutchman von Dinghene, in his book Vollzionismus, has proposed the island of Madagascar, but one could also imagine certain other suitable African or South American regions.


Of course, there is a danger that such a Jewish settlement area would become a world-famous El Dorado of criminality, given the deep moral decay of a large part of Jewry. There will have to be a force to provide just and honest supervision. This would also be possible, and details could be worked out. The danger may not hinder a broad solution of the Jewish Question by resettling Jewry to an appropriate settlement area outside of Europe. We propose this to the world: Give Ahasver a homeland, as far as possible from us, but sufficient and attractive. If he makes of it a garden he may keep it and will be protected. If, however, he makes of it a den of thieves, then one will keep him there.

19. Extracts from the judgement passed in September 1946 on Julius Streicher for his involvement in Nazi crimes, at the Nuremberg Trials. He was executed on 16th October 1946.

Streicher is indicted on Counts One and Four. One of the earliest members of the Nazi Party, joining in 1921, he took part in the Munich Putsch. From 1925 to 1940 he was Gauliter of Franconia. Elected to the Reichstag in 1933, he was an honorary general in the SA. His persecution of the Jews was notorious. He was the publisher of "Der Sturmer," an anti-Semitic weekly newspaper, from 1923 to 1945 and was its editor until 1933.

1. Crimes against Peace
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Streicher was a staunch Nazi and supporter of Hitler's main policies. There is no evidence to show that he was ever within Hitler's inner circle of advisers; nor during his career was he closely connected with the formulation of the policies which led to war. He was never present, for example, at any of the important conferences when Hitler explained his decisions to his leaders. Although he was a Gauleiter there is no evidence to prove that he had knowledge of those policies. In the opinion of the Tribunal, the evidence fails to establish his connection with the conspiracy or common plan to wage aggressive war.

4. Crimes against Humanity
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For his twenty-five years of speaking, writing, and preaching hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as "Jew-Baiter Number One." In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism and incited the German people to active persecution. Each issue of "Der Sturmer", which reached a circulation of 600,000 in 1935, was filled with such articles, often lewd and disgusting. Streicher had charge of the Jewish boycott of 1st April, 1933. He advocated the Nurnberg Decrees of 1935. He was responsible for the demolition on 10th August, 1938, of the Synagogue in Nurnberg. And on
10th November, 1938, he spoke publicly in support of the Jewish pogrom which was taking place at that time.

But it was not only in Germany that this defendant advocated his doctrines. As early as 1938 he began to call for the annihilation of the Jewish race. Twenty-three different articles of "Der Sturmer" between 1938 and 1941 were produced in evidence, in which the extermination "root and branch" was preached. Typical of his teachings was a leading article in September, 1938, which termed the Jew a germ and a pest, not a human being, but "a parasite, an enemy, an evildoer, a disseminator of diseases who must be destroyed
in the interest of mankind." Other articles urged that only when world Jewry had been annihilated would the Jewish problem have been solved, and predicted that fifty years hence the Jewish graves "will proclaim that this people of murderers and criminals has
after all met its deserved fate."


Streicher, in February, 1940, published a letter from one of "Der Sturmer's" readers which compared Jews with swarms of locusts which must be exterminated completely. Such was the poison Streicher injected into the minds of thousands of Germans which caused them to follow the National Socialists policy of Jewish persecution and extermination. A leading article of "Der Sturmer" in May, 1939, shows clearly his aim: "A punitive expedition must come against the Jews in Russia. A punitive expedition which will provide the same fate for them that every murderer and criminal must expect. Death sentence and execution. The Jews in Russia must be killed. They must be exterminated root and branch." As the war in the early stages proved successful in acquiring more and more territory for the Reich, Streicher even intensified his efforts to incite the Germans against the Jews. In the record are twenty-six articles from "Der Sturmer", published between August, 1941 and September, 1944, twelve by Streicher's own hand, which demanded annihilation and extermination in unequivocal terms.


He wrote and published on 25th December, 1941: "If the danger of the reproduction of that curse of God in the Jewish blood is to finally come to an end, then there is only one way-the extermination of that people whose father is the devil." And in February, 1944, his own article stated: "Whoever does what a Jew does is a scoundrel, a criminal. And he who repeats and wishes to copy him deserves the same fate, annihilation, death." With knowledge of the extermination of the Jews in the Occupied Eastern Territory, this defendant continued to write and publish his propaganda of death.


Testifying in this trial, he vehemently denied any knowledge of mass executions of Jews. But the evidence makes it clear that he continually received current information on the progress of the " final solution ". His press photographer was sent to visit the ghettos of the East in the Spring of 1943, the time of the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto. The Jewish newspaper," Israelitisches
Wochenblatt ", which Streicher received and read, carried in each issue accounts of Jewish atrocities in the East, and gave figures on the number of Jews who had been deported and killed. For example, issues appearing in the summer and fall of 1942 reported the death of 72,729 Jews in Warsaw, 17,542 in Lodz, 18,000 in Croatia, 125,000 in Rumania, 14,000 in Latvia, 85,000 in Yugoslavia, 700,000 in all of Poland.


In November, 1943, Streicher quoted verbatim an article from the "Israelitisches Wochenblatt " which stated that the Jews had virtually disappeared from Europe, and commented "This is not a Jewish lie." In December, 1942, referring to an article in the " London Times "about the atrocities, aiming at extermination, Streicher said that Hitler had given warning that the second World War would lead to the destruction of Jewry. In January, 1943, he wrote and published an article which said that Hitler's prophecy was being fulfilled, that world Jewry was being extirpated, and that it was wonderful to know that Hitler was freeing the world of its Jewish tormentors.


In the face of the evidence before the Tribunal it is idle for Streicher to suggest that the solution of the Jewish problem which he favoured was strictly limited to the classification of Jews as aliens, and the passing of discriminatory legislation such as the Nurnberg Laws, supplemented if possible by international agreement on the creation of a Jewish State somewhere in the world, to which all Jews should emigrate. Streicher's incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly constitutes persecution on political. and racial grounds in connection with war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against humanity.


20. Extracts from ‘The German Catachism’ – A booklet used in to educate people about Nazi Party ideology.

It goes through the 25 program points of the Nazi Party, and introduces the leaders of the party as well. I here translate the section on race. This pamphlet was apparently widely used in the schools. Taken from the German Propaganda Archive at http://research.calvin.edu
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What were and are the particular characteristics of the Nordic race?
Courage, bravery, creative ability and desire, loyalty. The German people is, along with the English, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, the most racially pure of the European peoples. With regards to the purity of language, the Scandinavian peoples are in first place.

Which race must the National Socialist race fight against?
The Jewish race.

Why?
The goal of the Jew is to make himself the ruler of humanity. Wherever he comes, he destroys works of culture. He is not a creative spirit, rather a destructive spirit.

How is that evident?
The work of Aryan peoples shows a true creative spirit. The Jew is mostly a merchant, as he was for millennia in the past. There are no Jewish construction workers in Germany, no smiths, no Jewish miners or seamen. Nearly all major inventions were made by Aryans.

How has the Jew subjugated the peoples?
With money. He lent them money and made them pay interest. Thousands and thousands of Germans have been made wretched by the Jews and been reduced to poverty. Farmers whose land had been in the family for more than 100 years were driven from their land because they could not pay the interest.

What happened to those farmers?
They had to move to the cities. Torn from the land to which they belonged, robbed of their labour that gave their lives purpose and meaning, they fell victim to poverty and misery. Worn down, their souls crushed, they accepted Jewish doctrines that denied the Fatherland and opposed all that was nationalistic. Their strength and ability faded. The Jew had reached his goal.

What other guilt does the Jew bear?
While the German people was fighting a life and death battle during the World War, the Jew incited people at home and seduced them into treason. The November Revolution of 1918 that brought about Germany’s collapse was the work of the Jew. In countless newspapers in Germany and abroad, he brought everything German into the mud, slandering us and inciting our enemies even more than they already were. His lackeys in leading positions in the Reich persecuted the National Socialist movement, bringing the fighters for a new Germany before judges and throwing them into prison. He corrupted Germans through bad books, and mocked true literature and German music, replacing it with ungermanic music. Everywhere, his influence was destructive.

What is racial defilement?
Forgetting our spirit and our blood. A careless disregard of our nature and a contempt for our blood. No German man may take a Jewish woman as his wife, and no German girl may marry a Jew. Those who do that exclude themselves from the community of the German people.

What must the National Socialist movement do?
Adolf Hitler said: “Care must be taken, at least in our nation, that the deadliest enemy (the Jew) is recognized, and that the battle against him is seen as the shining symbol of a brighter day that will also show other peoples the path to the salvation of fighting Aryan humanity.”

What does your people mean to you?
You are born into your people, my child, of a German mother. Your father is a German. And you belong to the German people just as every part of your body belongs to you. You are a link in a great chain, a part of the whole. Alone, you are nothing, but when you live for your people you are everything. Your people’s destiny is your destiny. Its struggles and sorrows, its joys and its miseries, are yours. All Germans are your brothers. You may not think, want or do anything that harms your people! The history of your people is great and glorious, and you can be proud of it. The days of betrayal and the years of shame that Germany had to endure between 1918 and 1933 are a warning to you. You must work and create for the resurrection of your Fatherland. The greatness of your people calls you to loyalty! Never forget that Frederick the Great and Bismarck were your brothers, as are those heroes of the World War who sleep in foreign soil or in the depths of the sea! The war memorials in the streets of the cities and the market places of the villages call to you. Never forget that we cheerfully shed our blood for you, for Germany’s holy soil, for the good and the life of this great people

21. Depiction of a Jew taken from a book called The Eternal Jew, published by the Nazi Party's
publishing house in 1937. The book consists entirely of photographs with brief captions.
The photos generally make Jews look as unpleasant as possible. After years of being told
that Jews were vermin, it became easier for Germans to accept what they would have
rejected in 1933.

22. From "Crimes against the Jews", extracts from the prosecution's opening address at the Nuremburg Trials given by Robert Jackson, Chief US Prosecutor in 1946.
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"It is my purpose to show a plan and design, to which all Nazis were fanatically committed, to annihilate all Jewish people. These crimes were organized and promoted by the Party Leadership, executed and protected by the Nazi official…… The persecution of the Jews was a continuous and deliberate policy. It was a policy directed against other nations as well as against the Jews themselves. Anti-Semitism was promoted to divide and embitter the democratic peoples and to soften their resistance to the Nazi aggression.

The persecution policy against the Jews commenced with nonviolent measures, such as disenfranchisement and discriminations against their religion, and the placing of impediments in the way of success in economic life. It moved rapidly to organized mass violence against them, physical isolation in ghettos, deportation, forced labour, mass starvation, and extermination..... The avowed purpose was the destruction of the Jewish people as a whole, as an end in itself, as a measure of preparation for war and as a discipline of conquered peoples...... The most serious of the actions against Jews were outside of any law, but the law itself was employed to some extent."

23-25. These three sources taken from ‘Weimar and Nazi Germany’ by John Hite and Chris Hinton (John Murray Publishers 2000)
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26. Extracts from "Why the Aryan Law": A 1934 Nazi pamphlet on racial laws trying to justify early Nazi laws forcing Jews out of professional jobs. The publishing company, Verlag, was affiliated to the Nazi Party. (www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpal)

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Why the Aryan Law? A Contribution to the Jewish Question
by Dr. E. H. Schulz and Dr. R. Frercks

The starting point of the discussion is the scientific fact that the Jew is different than the German. This is neither arrogant nor boastful, it simply is the way things are. For us, the Jewish question is a question between two peoples. Its characteristics are determined by the racially determined differences between the two and the foreign infiltration of jewry that has reached an intolerable level for the German people. They are seen everywhere as foreigners, and see themselves that way as well.

Whatever the twists of history, the Jew has always remained the same, whether as a grain speculator in ancient Rome or as a bank or stock exchange potentate in the modern era. They were always able to control the wealth of whole nations. Nations and peoples’ once their contemporaries, have vanished, leaving only words and crumbled monuments behind; only the Jew remains.

This historic manifestation of Jewry, which is unique, brings to the fore the question of the relationship between the host and guest peoples. Since the Jews were dispersed they have been held together by the laws of their religion and their faith that they were the chosen people. Until the middle of the 18th century, Germans and Jews lived apart from each other. In the Ghetto of the Middle Ages, the Jew developed his nature and characteristics, which were later to become significant, while maintaining the community of blood and race. The latter is particularly important, since the strict physical separation between the host and guest peoples maintained the foreign nature that we daily see so clearly, now that the barriers between have long since fallen.

The recognition that the Jew is of a foreign and different race along with the reawakening of German racial consciousness must necessarily lead to a change in the relations between Germans and Jews.

27. From an account of Adolf Hitler’s Interview with Mr Baillie of the United Press in 1935 describing the reasons for the Nuremburg Laws. Quoted in N H Baynes, The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, Oxford University Press, 1942, Volume I, pp.732
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Hitler said "One of the principle reasons for the legislation in Germany is the necessity to combat Bolshevism. This legislation is not anti-Jewish, but pro-German. The rights of Germans are thereby to be protected against destructive Jewish influences.” … the Jews who formed less than one per cent of the population tried to monopolize the cultural leadership of the people and flooded the intellectual professions, such as, for example, jurisprudence and medicine.

The influence of this intellectual Jewish class in Germany had everywhere a disintegrating effect . For this reason in order to bar the spread of this process of disintegration it became essential to take steps to establish a clear and clean separation between the two races. He stressed [that these legislative measures] served to protect the Jew, and this was proved by the fact that since the passing of the restrictive measures anti-Jewish sentiment in the country decreased.

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28. From an article "German People's Health from Blood and Soil“ in the New Year's Issue of Der Sturmer, 1935. Taken from German Propaganda Archive (www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa)

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"One single cohabitation of a Jew with an Aryan woman is sufficient to poison her blood forever. Together with the alien albumen she has absorbed the alien soul. Never again will she be able to bear purely Aryan children, even when married to an Aryan. They wilI all be *******s, with a dual souI and the body of a mixed breed. Their children will also be crossbreeds, that means ugly people of unsteady character and with a tendency to illness.

Now we know why the Jew uses every artifice of seduction in order to ravish German girls at as early an age as possible, why the Jewish doctor rapes his patients while they are under anaesthetic. He wants the German girl and the German woman to absorb the alien sperm of a Jew. She is never again to bear German children. But the blood products of all animals right down to the bacteria like serum, lymph, extracts from internal organs, etc. are also alien albumen. They have a poisonous effect if directly introduced into the bloodstream either by vaccination or injection. By these products of sick animals the blood is ravished,, the Aryan is 'impregnated' with an alien species.

The author and abettor of such action is the Jew. He has been aware of the secrets of the race question for centuries and therefore plans systematically the annihilation of the nations which are superior to him, Science and 'authorities' are his instruments for the enforcing of pseudo-science and the concealment of truth."


29. Extracts from the Nuremburg Laws taken from Noakes and Pridham, ‘Documents on Nazism 1919-1945’. NY: Viking Press, 1974

Also available at www.jewishvirtuallibrary.net

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Reich Citizenship Law - 15 September, 1935

Paragraph 2

I) A Reich citizen is a subject of the State who is of German or related blood, who proves by his conduct that he is willing and fit faithfully to serve the German people and Reich.

3) The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights in accordance with the Law.

Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour - 15 September, 1935

Moved by the understanding that purity of the German Blood is the essential condition for the continued existence of the German people, and inspired by the inflexible determination to ensure the existence of the German nation for all time, the Reichstag has unanimously adopted the following Law:

Paragraph 1

I) Marriages between Jews and subjects of the State of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent this law.

Paragraph 2

Extra-marital sexual relations between Jews and subjects of the State of German or related blood are forbidden.

Paragraph 3

Jews may not employ in their households female subjects of the State of German or related blood who are under 45 years of age.

Paragraph 4

I) Jews are forbidden to fly the Reich or National flag or to display the Reich colours.

2) They are, on the other hand, permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.

First [Implementing] Decree to the Reich Citizenship Law - 14 November, 1935

Paragraph 4

1) A Jew cannot be a Reich citizen. He has no voting rights in political matters; he cannot occupy a public office.

2) Jewish officials will retire as of 31 December, 1935...

Paragraph 5

1) A Jew is a person descended from at least three Jewish grandparents who are full Jews by race.

2) A subject of the State of mixed decent (Mischling) who is descended from two full Jewish grandparents is also considered a Jew if:

(a) he belonged to the Jewish religious community at the time this law was issued, or joined the community later;

(b) he was married to a Jew at the time the law was issued, or if he married a Jew subsequently;

(c) he is the offspring of a marriage with a Jew, which was contracted after the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour went into effect; or

(d) he is the offspring of extra-marital intercourse with a Jew and will be born out of wedlock after 31 July, 1936


30. Leading Article by Julius Streicher from "Der Stuermer" of September 1936 (No. 39) Taken from the German Propaganda Archive (www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa)

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To everybody! The "Stuermer" was right - The battle against the devil.

When the Nurnberg decrees for the protection of German blood and the German people were decided upon at the Reich Party RalIy in 1936, there were people who believed that with the creation of these laws the Jewish question was solved. Those who thought and talked along these lines were given a lesson within the year by world events. Only those who had but a superficial knowledge of what the Jewish question means to those who know, could speak of a solution of this question.

At the Reich Party Rally in Nurnberg which has just ended, it must have become clear even to the most simple-minded that the Jewish question is a question of world importance, the solution of which depends on a course of events which stretches out beyond the frontiers of the Third Reich. The speeches made at the Reich Party Congress in Nurnberg have finally put a spoke-in the wheel of those who, consciously or unconsciously, were against the work of the "Stuermer."

Dr. Wagner, the Reich Medical Chief, said in his speech of the 12th September 1936-word for word:

"However, to those who believe that the Jewish question has been finally solved and the matter thus settled for Germany by the Nurnberg decrees, be it said : The battle continues-world Jewry itself is seeing to that anyhow-and we shall only get through this battle victoriously if every member of the German people knows that their very existence is at stake”

Dr. Wagner thereby said what the "Stuermer" has always said to those who did not want to understand its work. At the Reich Party Rally of 1936 National Socialism declared war to the death on the Bolshevist Jews who are setting fire to the world. But wars can only be won if the combatants know for what they are fighting. The "Stuermer's" 15 years, of work of. enlightenment has already led an army of those who know-millions strong-to. National Socialism. The continued work of the "Stuermer" will help to ensure that every German down to the last man will, with heart and hand, join the ranks of those whose aim it is to crush the head of the serpent Pan-Juda beneath their heels. He who helps to bring this about helps to eliminate the devil. And this devil is the Jew.

Julius Streicher.

31. Letter written by Heinrich Himmler, published in Der Sturmer in April 1937

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If in later years the history of the re-awakening of the German people is written and if already the next generation will be unable to understand that the German people was once friendly to the Jews, it will be stated that Julius Streicher and his weekly paper "Der Stuermer" have contributed a great deal towards the enlightenment regarding the enemy of humanity.

Der Reichsfuehrer SS. H. Himmler


32. Hitler speaking at a meeting of Nazi Party district leaders in April 1937 outlining the party position in relation to the Jews. Taken from Noakes & Pridham ‘Nazism 1919 –1945’ vol 2 (1988)

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'All that concerns me is never to take a step that I might later have to retrace and never take a step which could damage us in any way. You must understand that I always go as far as I dare and never any further. It is vital to have a sixth sense which tells you broadly what you can and cannot do. [Hearty laughter and applause] Even in a struggle with an adversary it is not my way to issue a direct challenge to a trial of strength. I do not say come and fight because I want a fight’; instead I shout at him, and I shout louder and louder, ‘I mean to destroy you.’ Then I use my intelligence to help me manoeuvre him into a tight corner so that he cannot strike back, and then I deliver the fatal blow. This is how it is [shouts of bravo]. What I am saying is crystal clear to all of us.’

33. Gestapo internal communications from the night of Kristallnacht (9-10 November 1938) taken from www.historyplace.com
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From Heinrich Müller to all Gestapo offices - transmitted at 11:55 p.m., November 9, 1938:

Actions against Jews, especially against their synagogues, will take place throughout the Reich shortly. They are not to be interfered with; however, liaison is to be effected with the Ordnungspolizei to ensure that looting and other significant excesses are suppressed.

2) So far as important archive material exists in synagogues this is to be secured by immediate measures.

3) Preparations are to be made for the arrest of about 20,000 to 30,000 Jews in the Reich. Above all well-to-do Jews are to be selected. Detailed instructions will follow in the course of this night.

Should Jews in possession of weapons be encountered in the course of the action, the sharpest measures are to be taken.

Addendum for Stapo Cologne: In the Cologne synagogue there is especially important material. This is to be secured by the quickest measures in conjunction with SD.

From Reinhard Heydrich to all Gestapo and SD district and sub district offices - transmitted at 1:20 a.m., November 10, 1938:

Concerning: measures against Jews in the present night. On account of the assassination of the Leg. Sec. von Rath in Paris, demonstrations against the Jews are to be expected throughout the Reich in the present night........the political leadership is to be informed that the German police have received the following instructions from the Reichsführer SS and Chief of Police, to which the measures of the political leadership should be adapted, appropriately:

1. Only such measures should be taken as will not endanger German life or property (i.e. synagogue burning only if there is no fire-danger to the surroundings).

2. Businesses and dwellings of Jews should only be destroyed, not plundered. The police are instructed to supervise this regulation and to arrest looters.

3. Special care is to be taken that in business streets non-Jewish businesses are absolutely secured against damage.

4. Foreign nationals - even if they are Jews - should not be molested.

5. Directly after the termination of the events of this night, the employment of the officials deployed [for the demonstrations] permitting, as many Jews - especially the well-off ones - are to be arrested as can be accommodated in the available prison space. Above all only healthy, male Jews, not too old, are to be arrested. Immediately after execution of the arrests contact is to be made with the appropriate concentration camp regarding the quickest committal of the Jews to the camp. Special care is to be taken that the Jews arrested on this order are not maltreated.

34. Das Schwarze Korps [SS Newspaper] 24 November 1938. Taken from ‘Murderous Science’ by Benno Müller-Hill (New York: CSHL Press, 1998, p.48)

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"So, we are now going to have a total solution to the Jewish question. The programme is clear. It reads: total separation, total segregation! What does this mean? It does not only mean the total exclusion of the Jews from the German economic system... It means much more! No German can be expected to live under the same roof as Jews. The Jews must be chased out of our houses and our residential districts and made to live in rows or blocks of houses where they can keep to themselves and come into contact with Germans as little as possible. They must be clearly identified.... And when we compel the rich Jews to provide for the `poor' of their race, which will certainly be necessary, they will all sink together into a pit of criminality. As this happens, we will be faced with the harsh necessity of eradicating the Jewish underworld, just as we root out criminals from our own orderly state: with fire and sword. The result will be the certain and absolute end of Jewry in Germany; its complete annihilation!"

35. British Newspaper, The News Chronicle, on 11 November 1938: PROGROM RAGES THROUGH GERMANY INCENDIARY MOBS WRECK SHOPS & SYNAGOGUES www.schoolhistory.co.uk
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The rioting began in the early hours of this morning when formations of the Hitler Youth and Storm Troops streamed out of the taverns where they had been celebrating the fifteenth anniversary of Hitler's march on Munich. Drunken and aflame they set about their work of destruction. Synagogues were fired.... squads of youths, baffled by stout doors, set ladders against the windows, broke the panes and jumped in with petrol cans. Meanwhile, bawling, raucous gangs stumbled through the streets hurling bricks and stones through the windows of Jewish shops. The worst scenes of destruction were on Kurfurstendamm, a fashionable shopping center.... here in the early hours of the morning, while the average Berliner were trudging to work, looters smashed with peculiar care the windows of jewellery shops and s******ing, stuffed into their pockets the trinkets and necklaces that fell to the pavement. The average German looked on either apathetic or astonished. They sidled past scenes of destruction half-ashamed ..... Physical assaults on Jews were witnessed in Berlin today. Single Jews were chased through the streets by young Nazis, pummelled and knocked down.

36. Extract from The Daily Telegraph, 12 November 1938. An eyewitness account of Kristallnacht. (http://historyrevision.files.wordpre...ny-sources.pdf)
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Mob law ruled in Berlin throughout this afternoon and evening, and hordes of hooligans indulged in an orgy of destruction. I have seen several anti—Jewish outbreaks during the last five years, but never anything as sickening as this. Racial hatred and hysteria seemed to have taken complete hold of otherwise decent people. I saw fashionably dressed women clapping their hands and screaming with glee, while respectable mothers held up their babies to see the ‘fun’

The fashionable shopping centre of the Capital has been reduced to shambles, with the streets littered with the wreckage of sacked Jewish shops and offices. No attempt was made by police to stop the rioters. The attacks on Jews and their property started all over Germany, as if by signal, soon after midnight, when the beer—halls closed... The caretaker of the synagogue in the Prinzregentenstrasse is reported to have been burnt to death together with his family. It is learned on good authority that two Jews were lynched in Berlin’s East End early this morning and two more in the West End.


37. Extracts from a stenographic report (based on shorthand notes) of a meeting chaired by Hermann Goering on 12th November 1938, two days after Kristallnacht. Taken from ‘Weimar and Nazi Germany’ by John Hite and Chris Hinton (an A Level text book), John Murray Publishers (2000).

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Goering: I have received a letter written on the Fuhrer’s orders, requesting that the Jewish question be now, once and for all, co-ordinated and solved one way or another. Since the problem is mainly an economic one it is from an economic angle that it shall have to be tackled. Naturally a number of legal measures shall have to be taken which fall into the sphere of the Minister for Justice and into that of the Minister of the Interior; and certain propaganda measures shall be taken care of by the Minister for Propaganda. The Minister for Finance and the Minister for Economic Affairs shall take care of the problems falling into their respective areas.

The meeting in which we first talked about this question and came to the decision to aryanise the German economy, to take the Jew out of it, was one in which, to our shame, we only made pretty plans which were executed very slowly. We then had a demonstration, right here in Berlin, we told people that something that something decisive would be done, but again nothing happened. We have had this affair in Paris now (the assassination of von Rath that led to Kristallnacht), more demonstrations followed and this time something decisive must be done!

Because gentlemen, I have had enough of these demonstrations! They don’t hurt the Jew but me, who is the last authority for the co-ordinating of the German economy. If today, a Jewish shop is destroyed… the insurance company will pay the damages. Furthermore goods belonging to the German people are destroyed. I pray that future demonstrations be directed so as not to hurt us.

We have not come together merely to talk again but to make decisions and I implore the competent agencies to take all measures for the elimination of the Jew from the German economy and to submit them to me…. The state will estimate the value of the property and decide what amount the Jew will receive. Naturally this amount is to be set as low as possible. The property shall then be sold according to its real value.

Goebbles: I am of the opinion that this is our chance to dissolve the synagogues… The Jews shall pay for it. We shall build parking lots in their places or new buildings. I deem it necessary to issue a decree forbidding Jews to enter German theatres, movie houses and circuses. Furthermore… we need a decree stating that separate compartments [on trains] for Jews shall be available. [followed by a discussion on how best to organise and legislate for the segregation of train carriages. Goebbles then refers to excluding Jews from German beaches; then forests; then parks.]

Goebbles: Furthermore, Jewish children are still allowed in German schools. That’s impossible. It’s out of the question that any boy should sit beside a Jewish boy in a German high school.

Goering: I too am of the opinion that these economic measures ought to be strengthened by a number of propaganda measures and cultural displays so that everything shall be fixed now and the Jewry will be slapped this week right and left.

Heydrich: The main problem, namely to kick the Jew out of Germany, remains. Following a suggestion by the Commissioner of the Reich we have set up a Centre for the Emigration of Jews in Vienna and that way we have eliminated 50,000 Jews from Austria while from the Reich only 19,000 Jews were eliminated during the same period.


38. Adolf Hitler’s speech to the party congress at Nuremburg in September 1938. Taken from The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939. Edited by N H Haynes. (Volume I, pp.719-720 Oxford University Press, 1942)

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"They complain… of the boundless cruelty with which Germany-and now Italy also-seek to rid themselves of their Jewish elements. All these great democratic empires taken together have only a handful of people to the square kilometre. Both in Italy and Germany there are over 140. Yet formerly Germany, without blinking an eyelid, for whole decades admitted these Jews by the hundred thousand. But now… when the nation is no longer willing to be sucked dry by these parasites, on every side one hears nothing but laments. But lamentations have not led these democratic countries to substitute helpful activity at last for their hypocritical questions; on the contrary, these countries with icy coldness assured us that obviously there was no place for the Jews in their territory. … So no help is given, but morality is saved.”


39. Extract from Hitler’s speech in Wilhelmshaven on 1 April 1939 (http://historicalresources.wordpress...ical-speeches/)
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"Only when this Jewish bacillus infecting the life of peoples has been removed can one hope to establish a co-operation amongst the nations which shall be built up on a lasting understanding."


40. Extracts from a German Foreign Ministry Memorandum on ‘The Jewish Question’ as a factor in foreign policy (25 January 1939).
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“…..the need for a radical solution of the Jewish question also resulted from the developments in foreign affairs, which added 200,000 persons of the Jewish faith in Austria to the 500,000 living in the old Reich…….. The campaign launched in reprisal for the assassination (of von Rath) has speeded up this process (of eliminating Jewish economic influence) so greatly that Jewish retail trade - so far with be the exception of foreign - owned stores - has vanished completely from our streets……… within a limited period of time the existence of Jewish property will in Germany be a thing of the past.

The ultimate aim of Germany’s policy is the emigration of all Jews living in German territory... The Jew has been eliminated from politics and culture, but until 1938 his powerful economic position in Germany and his tenacious determination to hold out until the return of ‘better times’ remained unbroken....... The question, to which countries the organised emigration of the Jews should be directed, could not be solved by the Evian Conference. While in the years 1933-4 more than 100,000 Jews from Germany made their way abroad, legally or illegally, and were able to gain a foothold in a new host nation……. by now almost all countries in the world have sealed their borders hermetically against the burdensome Jewish intruders……….. for Germany the Jewish question will not be solved until the last Jew has left German soil.

Palestine, which has already been designated by a popular catchword as the target of emigration, cannot be considered as such because its absorptive capacity for a mass influx of Jews is insufficient………the British government has limited Jewish immigration into Palestine to a minimum.

Germany is obliged to discern the danger in the creation of a Jewish State……. The realisation that Jewry will always be the implacable enemy of the Third Reich forces us to the decision to prevent any strengthening of the Jewish position. A Jewish State would give world Jewry increased power in international law and relations…... Germany has an important interest in seeing the splintering of Jewry maintained…….. the influx of Jews arouses the resistance of the native population in all parts of the world and thus provides the best propaganda for Germany’s policy toward the Jews. It must be the aim of German foreign policy to strengthen this wave of anti-Semitism…...

The poorer the Jewish immigrant is and the greater the burden he constitutes for the country into which he has immigrated, the stronger the reaction will be in the host country, and the more desirable the effect in support of German propaganda. The aim of this German policy is a future international solution of the Jewish question, dictated not by false pity for a ‘Jewish religious minority that has been driven out’ but by the mature realisation by all nations of the nature of the danger that Jewry spells for the national character of the nations."

41. Hitler speech to the Reichstag 30th January 1939 – The ‘Prophecy Speech’ (Noakes & Pridham ‘Nazism 1919-1945 vol 2 1988).

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‘Europe cannot find peace until the Jewish question has been solved. It may well be that sooner or later an agreement may be reached in Europe itself between nations who otherwise would not find it so easy to arrive at an understanding. There exists sufficient land available on this globe….

One thing I should like to say on this day which may be memorable for others as well as for us Germans. In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and have usually been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance only the Jewish race that received my prophecies with laughter when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and with it that of the whole nation, and that I would among other things settle the Jewish problem.

Their laughter was uproarious, but you think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe.’

42. Explanation of and extract from Reinhard Heydrich's Instructions to Einsatzgruppen leaders, 21 September, 1939 (J Noakes and G Pridham (eds.) Nazism 1919-1945: A Documentary Reader. Vol. 3 Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1988, pp.1051-1053)
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During and following the invasion of Poland, special tasks concerning control of the occupied Polish population, both Christian and Jewish, were entrusted to special SS units known as Einsatzgruppen, or task forces. A significant set of instructions to their commanders was issued by Reinhard Heydrich, SS-Lieutenant-General and head of the Reich Main Security Office, on September 27, 1939. Their significance lay in the setting out of a policy for concentrating the Jews in particular locations in preparation for some subsequent and unspecified "final goal" relating to their eventual disposition.

The instructions stipulated that:

"A distinction must be made between the final goal (which will require a lengthy period) and the stages toward the achievement of this final goal (which can be carried out on a short-term basis).

The following instructions and directives serve simultaneously the purpose of encouraging the chiefs of the Einsatzgruppen to reflect on the practical issues.

The first preliminary measure for achieving the final goal is the concentration of the Jews from the countryside in the larger cities. It must be speedily implemented. … as few concentration points as possible should be established so that only those cities are designated which are either railway junctions or at least lie on a railway line. As a matter of principle, Jewish communities of under 500 are to be dissolved and transferred to the nearest concentration city.

It must be ensured that the economic exploitation of the occupied territories does not suffer as a result of these measures."

These instructions feature importantly in debates concerning the objectives of German Jewish policy at this particular historical juncture. In particular, what interpretation should be placed on the phrase "the final goal" which will require "a lengthy period" and the "stages towards the achievement of this final goal (which can be carried out on a short-term basis)? Does this imply, as some historians contend, that by September 1939 Nazi decision-makers already presaged the extermination of European Jewry, "the final goal"? Alternatively, as other historians contend, was the "final goal", at this time, still construed as "resettlement" in Eastern Poland or elsewhere? Concentration near railway junctions would be compatible with either policy. Reference to the need to ensure the economic exploitation of the occupied territories, on the other hand, would not be inconsistent with a policy of resettlement.


43. Explanation of and extract from a statement made by Heinrich Himmler, Reich Leader of the SS and Chief of the German Police, on 25 November 1939. (J Noakes, G Pridham. Nazism, 1919-1945: A Documentary Reader. Volume 3. p.1055. University of Exeter Press, 1991)
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At the time that this statement was made Himmler had embarked on an ambitious policy of demographic restructuring involving the transfer of ethnic Germans to portions of Poland that had been annexed by the Reich, known as the Reichsgau Wartheland (in western Poland, bordering Germany), movement of Poles who had been resident in this area to the remainder of German occupied Poland, known as the General Government, and movement of Jews from the Reich and the Wartheland to Eastern Poland.

"We won’t waste much time on the Jews. It’s great to get to grips with the Jewish race at last. The more they die the better… We want to put half to three-quarters of all Jews east of the Vistula. We will crush these Jews wherever we can. … Get the Jews out of the Reich… We have no use for Jews in the Reich. We are the most important people here…"

44. Speech by Hans Frank, Governor General of the General Government, Poland, April 12, 1940 (Y Arad, et.al. Documents on the Holocaust. London: Pergamon Press, 1981,pp.197-98)
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“If the authority of the National-Socialist Reich is to be upheld, then it is unacceptable that representatives of the Reich should be obliged to meet Jews when they enter or leave the house, and are in this way liable to infection with epidemics. therefore [intend] to clear the city of Cracow [the seat of the Governor-General of the General Government] of Jews, as far as at all possible, by November 1, 1940. There will be a major operation to move the Jews, on the grounds that it is absolutely intolerable that thousands upon thousands of Jews should go slinking around and occupy apartments in the city which the Führer has granted the great honour of becoming the seat of a high Reich Authority... “

45. RSHA (Reich Main Security Office – part of the SS) directive from 24th April 1940 from ‘Nazism’ (volume 2) by Noakes and Pridham p1074
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46. ‘Some thoughts on the treatment of ethnic groups and Jews in the occupied East’. An internal memorandum written in May 1940 by Heinrich Himmler. Taken from ww2history.com
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“I hope completely to erase the concept of Jews through the possibility of a great emigration of all Jews to a colony in Africa or elsewhere… However cruel and tragic each individual case may be, this method is still the mildest and best, if one rejects the Bolshevik method of physical extermination of a people out of inner conviction as un-German and impossible.”

(next to this section of the report Hitler added the hand written notation: “very good and correct.”)

47. From an internal SS memorandum written by Heinrich Himmler, ‘Some thoughts about the treatment of foreign peoples in eastern territories.’ 23 March 1941 Quoted in "Murderous Science" - Page 48 - by Benno Müller-Hill - History – 1998 www.wikiquote.org

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"I hope to see the very concept of Jewry completely obliterated.“

48. From a speech by Hans Frank, the Nazi governor-general of occupied Poland, on the Madagascar Plan, 12th July 1940. Taken from www.holocaustresearchproject.org
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Another very important point is the decision of the Fuhrer, which he made at my request, that there will be no more transports of Jews into the area of the Government-General (in Nazi controlled occupied Poland).

As a general political observation I would like to state that it is planned to transport the whole pack of Jews (Judensippschaft) from the German Reich, the Government-General and the Protectorate, in the shortest conceivable time after peace has been made, to an African or American Colony. Madagascar is being considered, to be ceded by France for this purpose.

There will be ample room here for a few million Jews on an area of 500,000 sq. kms. I have tried to let the Jews in the Government-General also share in this advantage of building up a new life on a new land. This has been accepted so that there should be a tremendous easing within sight.

49. Extracts from an Internal Foreign Office Memo (dated July 3rd 1940) written by Nazi official Franz Rademacher taken from www.jewishvirtuallibrary.com
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The approaching victory gives Germany the possibility, and in my view also the duty, of solving the Jewish question in Europe. The desirable solution is: all Jews out of Europe.

The task of the Foreign Ministry in this is:

a) To include this demand in the Peace Treaty and to insist on it also by means of separate negotiations with the European countries not involved in the Peace Treaty.

b) To secure the territory necessary for the settlement of the Jews in the Peace Treaty, and to determine principles for the cooperation of the enemy countries in this problem.

c) To determine the position under international law of the new Jewish overseas settlement.

d) as preparatory measures:

There have already been discussions with the Office of the Reichsfuehrer SS in the Ministry of Interior and several departments of the Party. These departments approve the following plan:

In the Peace Treaty France must make the island of Madagascar available for the solution of the Jewish question, and to resettle and compensate the approximately 25,000 French citizens living there. The island will be transferred to Germany under a mandate. Diégo Suarez Bay and the port of Antsirane, which are strategically important, will become German naval bases.

In addition to these naval bases, suitable areas of the country will be excluded from the Jewish territory (Judenterritorium) for the construction of air bases. That part of the island not required for military purposes will be placed under the administration of a German Police Governor, who will be under the administration of the Reichsfuehrer SS.

Apart from this, the Jews will have their own administration in this territory: their own mayors, police, postal and railroad administration, etc. The Jews will be jointly liable for the value of the island. For this purpose their former European financial assets will be transferred for use to a European bank to be established for this purpose. Insofar as the assets are not sufficient to pay for the land which they will receive, and for the purchase of necessary commodities in Europe for the development of the island, the Jews will be able to receive bank credits from the same bank.

As Madagascar will only be a Mandate, the Jews living there will not acquire German citizenship. On the other hand, the Jews deported to Madagascar will lose their citizenship of European countries from the date of deportation. Instead, they will become residents of the Mandate of Madagascar.

This arrangement would prevent the possible establishment in Palestine by the Jews of a Vatican State of their own, and the opportunity for them to exploit for their own purposes the symbolic importance which Jerusalem has for the Christian and Mohammedan parts of the world. Moreover, the Jews will remain in German hands as a pledge for the future good behavior of the members of their race in America.

Use can be made for propaganda purposes of the generosity shown by Germany in permitting cultural, economic, administrative and legal self-administration to the Jews; it can be emphasized at the same time that our German sense of responsibility towards the world forbids us to make the gift of a sovereign state to a race which has had no independent state for thousands of years: this would still require the test of history.

signed Rademacher

50. Hermann Goering’s directive to Reinhard Heydrich to prepare a plan for the ‘Final Solution of the Jewish question’, 31 July, 1941 (www.holocaustresearchproject.org)
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To the Chief of the Security Police and the SD,

SS Gruppenfuhrer [Lieutenant General] Heydrich

Berlin

In completion of the task which was entrusted to you in the Edict dated January 24, 1939, of solving the Jewish question by means of emigration or evacuation in the most convenient way possible, given the present conditions, I herewith charge you with making all necessary preparation with regards to organisational, practical and financial aspects for an overall solution [Gesamtlosung] of the Jewish question in the German sphere of influence in Europe.

In so far as the competencies of other central organisations are affected, these are to be involved.

I further charge you with submitting to me promptly an overall plan of the preliminary organisational, practical and financial measures for the execution of the intended final solution [Endlosung] of the Jewish question.

Goering


51. Comments made by Hitler at a dinner table conversation in October 1941 (John Toland, Adolf Hitler. London: Book Club Associates, 1977, p.702-3)
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"From the rostrum of the Reichstag, I prophesied to Jewry that, in the event of war’s proving inevitable, the Jew would disappear from Europe. That race of criminals has on its conscience the two million dead of the First World War, and now already hundreds and thousands more. Let nobody tell me that all the same we can’t park them in the marshy parts of Russia! Who’s worrying about our troops? It’s not a bad idea, by the way, that public rumour attributes to us a plan to exterminate the Jews. Terror is a salutary thing."


52. Address by Hans Frank, Governor-General of the General Government, Poland, to senior members of his administration, December 16, 1941. (A J Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken: The "Final Solution" in History. London: Verso, 1990, pp. 302-03)

This statement was made five weeks before the meeting of senior officials at Wannsee, Berlin, on January 20, 1942, where the final administrative details concerning the Final Solution of the Jewish question were discussed in detail. The conference had originally been planned for December 9, 1941.

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"Let me tell you quite frankly: in one way or another we will have to finish with the Jews. The Führer once expressed it as follows: should Jewry once again succeed in inciting a world war, the bloodletting could not be limited to the peoples they drove to war but the Jews [themselves] would be done for in Europe. …if the Jewish tribe survives the war in Europe while we sacrifice our blood for the preservation of Europe, this war will be but a partial success. Basically, I must presume, therefore, that the Jews will disappear. … To that end I have started negotiations to expel them to the east

In January there will be a major conference on this question in Berlin to which I shall send State Secretary Dr Buhler. The conference is to be held in the office of SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich at the Reich Security Main Office. A major Jewish migration will certainly begin.

But what is to become of the Jews? Do you think that they will be settled in villages in the conquered eastern territories? In Berlin we have been told not to complicate matters: since neither these territories [nor our own] have any use for them, we should liquidate them ourselves! Gentlemen, I must ask you to remain unmoved by pleas for pity. We must annihilate the Jews wherever we encounter them and wherever possible, in order to maintain the overall mastery of the Reich here….

For us the Jews are also exceptionally damaging because they are being such gluttons. There are an estimated 2.5 million Jews in the General Government, perhaps…. 3.5 million. These 3.5 million Jews, we cannot shoot them, nor can we poison them. Even so, we can take steps which in some way or other will pave the way for [their] destruction, notably in connection with the grand measures to be discussed in the Reich. The General Government must become just as judenfrie [free of Jews] as the Reich."

53. Extract from Goebbels article ‘The Jews Are to Blame’ in Das Reich, 16th November 1941 (taken from ‘History At Source: Nazi Germany 1933-1945’ by John Laver – Hodder and Stoughton 1991)
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54. Excerpts from the minutes of the Wansee Conference prepared by Adolf Eichmann (20th January 1942)
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In view of the dangers of emigration in war-time, and the possibilities in the East, the Reichsfuhrer SS and Chief of the German Police (Himmler) has forbidden the emigration of Jews. Emigration has now been replaced by the evacuation of Jews to the East, as a further possible solution, with the appropriate prior authorisation of the Fuhrer…..However, this operation should be regarded only as a provisional option; but its is already supplying practical experience of great significance in view of the coming final solution of the Jewish question. In the course of this final solution of the European Jewish question approximately 11 million Jews may be taken into consideration.

The Jews are to be utilized for work in the East in an expedient manner in the course of the final solution. In large (labor) columns, with the sexes separated, Jews capable of work will be moved into those areas as they build roads, during which a large proportion will no doubt drop out through natural reduction. The remnant that eventually remains will require suitable treatment; because it will no doubt represent the most (physically) resistant part, it consists of a natural selection that could, on its release, become the germ-cell of a new Jewish revival.

Europe is to be combed through from West to East in the course of the practical implementation of the final solution. The evacuated Jews will first be taken, group by group, to so-called transit ghettos, in order to be transported further east from there.

55. From ‘Racial Policy’ – a 1943 SS pamphlet. This is a pamphlet outlining Nazi racial theories. It seems to have been intended primarily for members of the SS, though the copy I am working from carries the stamp of a school library. The book also suggests a plan for covering the content of the booklet in eleven class periods, indicating it was intended for use in the schools.
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The Jews were behind the teachings of equality by the Church, Liberalism and Marxism. They were the first and most fanatic proponents of the idea. The Jew Paul spread the Christian doctrine of equality. Freemasonry dominated the intellectual world of the French Revolution, and Liberalism grew out of Freemasonry. The Portuguese Jew Ricardo, the “father of classical national economics,” is the prophet of the liberal economic theory of free trade and economic piracy. The foundation of Marxism and Bolshevism is “Das Kapital,” by the Jew Mardochai (Marx).

How did the Jew gain this destructive power over the European peoples? The Jews are a mixed race. The essential characteristic that separates them from all other races and peoples is the instinct for parasitism. The Jews themselves are most clear about this. Karl Marx, the author of “Das Kapital,” says: “What is the essential trait of Jewry? Practicality, self interest. What is the culture of the Jew? Haggling. What is his god? Money.” The Jewish philosopher Spinoza said: “What we require is simple: that we control everything necessary for our own good.”

The parasitic nature of the Jews is clear in its ability to adjust to the host peoples. A characteristic example is the relationship of the Jew to language: Even before our era the Jewish people had changed its language several times. Wherever they went, they took on the host language, though they were generally unable to conceal their racial additions.

Yet the Jews are one of the most racially conscious peoples. The laws of the Old Testament and the Talmud strongly prohibit marriage with Gentiles. Leading Jews have always stressed the importance of race and racial purity. Even the Soviet Union, otherwise opposed to race, had passed measures to protect Jewish blood. The most familiar statement comes from the Jew Benjamin Disraeli (originally d’Israeli, later Lord Beaconsfeld), the longtime British prime minister: “No one may be indifferent to the racial principle, the racial question. It is the key to world history. History is often confusing because it is written by people who did not understand the racial question and the aspects relevant to it... Race is everything, and every race that does not keep its blood from being mixed will perish. . . Language and religion do not determine a race — blood determines it.”

His parasitic nature led the Jew to hold his own race pure, and to strike other races at the core of their being, their racial nature. Only when a people's racial purity has been destroyed is the Jew able to develop freely and without restraint. Disraeli's political policies prove that many Jews consciously work to destroy racial purity. He made Queen Elizabeth Empress of India, creating an opening in England for oriental life styles. He misled the English people with the notion of an Oriental Empire, thereby dulling and falsifying English racial instincts. The Jew also betrayed the peoples of Russia with images of heaven on earth, leading to race mixing to a vast degree, greatly speeding up a process of decay already in progress. The Jew could realize his plans for world domination only when Russia had become weak, without instincts, without culture. That is how we understand Mommsen's description of the Jewish people as the “ferment of decomposition.” As a result, there can never be peace, but only combat, between the Jew and racially aware peoples. Europe will have defeated this threat only when the last Jew has left our part of the planet. The Führer's words at the beginning of the war will be fulfilled: The German people will not be destroyed in this war, but rather the Jew.

56. Extract from Goebbles diary entry for 27th March 1942
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“A judgement is being visited on the Jews that, while barbaric is fully deserved by them. The prophesy which the Fuhrer made about them for having brought on a new world war is beginning to come true in the most terrible manner. One must not be sentimental in these matters. If we did not fight the Jews, they would destroy us. It’s a life and death struggle between the Aryan race and the Jewish bacillus. No other government and no other regime would have the strength for such a global solution of this question. Here, too, the Fuhrer is the undismayed champion of a radical solution necessitated by conditions and therefore inexorable. Fortunately a whole series of possibilities presents itself for us in wartime that would be denied us in peacetime. We shall have to profit by this.”


57. Extract from a speech given by Himmler to SS leaders at Posen on 4th October 1943 (taken from 'History At Source: Nazi Germany 1933-46' By John Laver - Hodder and Stoughton 1991)
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58. Part of Statement by Adolf Eichmann, to an Israeli interrogator in 1960
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I think the war against the Soviet Union started in June 1941. And I think it must have been two months later, it could have been three months later, that Heydrich ordered me to come and see him. I went and he said to me: ‘About the emigration, the Fuhrer’ … With a little speech beforehand: ‘The Fuhrer has ordered the physical extermination of the Jews.’

He said this sentence to me and then, quite contrary to his habit, paused for a long time as if he wanted to test the effect of his words on me. At first I could not grasp the implications because he chose his words carefully. But then I understood and said nothing further because there was nothing more I could say.

59. “Ten responses to Jewish Lackeys” by Kurt Hilmar Eitzen.

The Nazis were always worried about those Germans who did not accept anti-Semitism. In this article from the party monthly for propagandists, the writer provides ten responses to the most common objections they encountered to Nazi anti-Semitic measures. These were arguments intended for everyday use in conversation with fellow citizens
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There are still Jewish lackeys today who attempt to disrupt our storm attack on the Jewish world rulers, trying to stop us or even cause us to fall. The following hints show how one can reply to these arguments by our opponents, or even turn their arguments against them.

Argument 1: “You say that religion is a private matter. But you fight against the Jewish religion!” — Counterargument: “Actually, the Jewish religion is nothing other than a doctrine to preserve the Jewish race.” (Adolf Hitler). “In resisting all government attempts to nationalize them, the Jews build a state within the state (Count Helmuth von Moltke). “To call this state a ‘religion’ was one of the cleverest tricks ever invented.” (Adolf Hitler). “From this first lie that Jewry is a religion, not a race, further lies inevitably follow.” (Adolf Hitler).

Argument 2: “There are decent Jews, after all!” — Counterargument: “This little phrase ‘after all’ proves that they are rare exceptions of no significance to our battle against Jewry as a whole. But Martin Luther saw four hundred years ago that this “decency,” proven by charitable deeds done in as public a manner as possible, is nothing but a hidden cost of business, to repaid a thousand times by uneducated Germans. “Know, dear Christian, and have no doubts about it, that next to the Devil you have no more bitter, poisonous and determined enemy than a genuine Jew. . . If they do something good for you, it is not because they love you, but because they need room to live with us, so they have to do something. But their heart remains as I have said!”

Argument 3: “The Jew has better prices than the German businessman.” — Counterargument: Any crook can sell junk. Jewish crooks have driven thousands of German businessmen to bankruptcy with the glittering trash in their department store palaces. When someone does get good products more cheaply from the Jews than from Germans, it is only because the united Jewish firms force down prices from the manufacturers, which means reducing workers’ wages. He who has bought good products cheaply from the Jew should never forget that the curse of a German worker and the tears of his hungry children come with them!

Argument 4: “There are also ‘white Jews’ [i.e., Gentiles who are as bad as Jews]. — Counterargument: “That speaks against the Jews, not for them! The fact that one calls the crooks among us ‘white Jews’ is proof that being a Jew implies something bad. Otherwise, one would call crooked Jews ‘yellow Christians.’ The fact that there are so many ‘white Jews’ among us proves that the destructive Jewish spirit has already infected wide circles of our population. It is a warning to us that we have to take up the battle against the Jewish world plague everywhere.” (Joseph Goebbels). That is why Point 24 of our party program states: “The party battles the Jewish-materialistic spirit within and outside of us.”

Argument 5: “Mr. Levi is not a Jew, since he has been baptized!” — Counterargument: As we have already shown, Jewry is not a religion. The Führer pointed that out in a sarcastic manner during the period of struggle [1919-1933] when he said that it was a peculiar sort of religion when one could smell its adherents from a great distance! No, a Jew always remains a Jew. Chaim Herz Bückeberg, better known as “Heinrich Heine,” joked: “Are these long noses a kind of uniform that allows the God King Jehovah to recognize his old body guard, even if they have deserted?” “I have no desire to convert the Jews,” Martin Luther wrote, “since that is impossible.” A Jew remains a Jew. “In case of need, a dose of baptismal water saves both business and Jewry at the same time!” (Adolf Hitler).

Argument 6: “It is true that Mr. Moses Freundenstein is a Jew, but his parents and grandparents lived here. He is one of our old established citizens.” — Counterargument: Just as a goat does not become a horse, even if his father and grandfather were in the same stall, a Jew can never become a German, even if his ancestor came to Germany as a peddler in Varus’ army [during the Roman era].

Argument 7: “The Jew is a human being, too!” — Counterargument: “Of course the Jew is a human being too. None of us has ever doubted it. But a flea is also an animal. But not a very pleasant one. Since a flea is not a pleasant animal, we have no duty to protect and defend it, to take care of it so that it can bite and torment and torture us. Rather, we make it harmless. It is the same with the Jews.” {Joseph Goebbels).

Argument 8: “Everything with a human face is equal.” — Counterargument: Thirteen years ago, the Stürmer carried a cartoon. In it, a miserable pig looked up from his sty to a royal lion. “Everything with an animal face is equal!” But what did the lion growl in reply? “That's what you swine would like to think!”

Argument 9: “Anti-Semitism is only something for idiots!” Counterargument: One no longer hears this lie in National Socialist Germany. But one still reads it in the Jewish emigre press abroad, and Jews whisper it here and perhaps some Jewish lackeys still think that. We smile in response, and note that the Jews have never produced a single creative man, but that all great men in every country have been implacable opponents of the Jews. Some “intellectuals” may be distressed when one doubts their understanding, but we will follow the battle cry against Judah that all of the great men of our past have made!

Argument 10: “Can you live with the uproar and accept responsibility for the misery that the laws of the Third Reich bring to thousands of Jewish families?” — Counterargument: “It is almost a miracle that absolutely nothing has happened to Jews in Germany, but rather that only gradually the rights they stole from the Germans in politics and culture have been restored.” (Alfred Rosenberg). But even if a few hundred Jewish families in Germany really did have to go hungry, what is that against the many millions of German families that the Jew murdered over the course of centuries through wars, revolutions, and civil strife, not to mention those ruined through usury and fraud. “In the battle between the races, there is no truce. If you are determined finally to defend yourself, German people, then be pitiless!” (Adolf Hitler).

60. ‘The Jewish Problem’ by Max Eichler.

The book from which this section is taken was intended to provide a citizen's handbook to the Third Reich, with many pictures illustrating the way Nazi Germany worked. This section presents the “Jewish Question” from a Nazi viewpoint. Citizens are told that Nazis measures against the Jews are reasonable and defensive — but there are also hints of what was to come.

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The Jewish Question is as old as the history of Jewry itself. From the days of antiquity to the present, peoples have always risen up to defend themselves against Jewish parasitism. The defense was often bloody. Greater Germany is the first country in the world to find a legal way to separate from the alien Jewish people. In contrast to the views of the last century and of the so-called democrats of today, National Socialism sees the Jewish Question not as a religious problem, but rather as a racial question. After Jews had been removed from the civil service and the press and cultural life had been cleansed, the most important step was the Nuremberg racial laws (see pages 36-47!). The world paid attention. It saw that it was no longer a matter of theory, that it was not merely the anti-Semitism of an earlier age, but rather that the final reckoning with Jewry had begun. World Jewry also realized the inescapable fate that faced the Jewish people. For the first time in their history, the Jews faced a movement that transcended all borders and oceans, one that could no longer be stopped — regardless of whether other peoples resisted or hesitated. The world-wide boycott movement against National Socialist Germany, the war agitation of the world Jewish press, and the gunshots by Jewish murderers that killed Wilhelm Gustloff and Ernst vom Rath, proved that. National Socialism fights its battles to a victorious end with iron determination. It will solve the Jewish Question in a way it thinks right for the German people, regardless of the deadly enmity and songs of hatred on the part of the Jews and their democratic friends. It will do this legally, but without compromise, and finally. It is no accident that the German people was called to do this. No other people gave the Jews such opportunity to carry out their drives as did the German people in the midst of its deepest need. No other people is strong enough to give the Jews the fate they deserve as is the German people! As in so many other areas. National Socialist Germany has given the rest of the world the example of how to deal with the Jewish Question, as is shown by the racial laws of our ally Italy, and by the spread of the Jewish Question to many other countries.

The murder of Ernst vom Rath did not slow legal measures aimed at solving the Jewish Problem, but rather sped them up. The Jews living in Germany had to pay a fine of a billion marks to discourage them from repeating the cowardly murder. Jewish-democratic voices abroad complained about the “poor” Jews. Yet after six years of a National Socialist government, the 700,000 Jews in Germany were worth 8 billion marks, while the nearly 80 million German citizens were worth only 200 billion marks. Each Jew on average had 4.57, or four-and-a-half times, as much as the average German. Jewish net worth, which had been 4 billion marks in 1918, had doubled, at the expense of the German people. Jews also owned substantial property (for example, more than half — about 60% — of Berlin belonged to the Jews, although they were only 3.8% of the population). That proves the extent to which Jewish parasites had exploited the German people. Truly, it is only a small bill that the National Socialist leadership of the German people gave to the Jews. The series of laws and regulations laid out on the following pages bring us nearer to a solution of the Jewish Question in Germany in every regard.

Legal Measures to Solve the Jewish Problem

Excluding the Jews from the German Economy
Jews are prohibited from owning shops, mail order firms, or branches, and from owning an independent craft firm. They are further prohibited from offering goods or business services at markets, exhibitions, or trade fairs of any kind. A Jew can no longer be a factory director, a leading official, or a member of a cooperative.
Shops, mail order firms, and branches owned by Jews are to be closed down and eliminated. Only in particular cases can Jewish firms be aryanized. The same is true for Jewish craft firms.
The Jews were excluded from six branches of industry in the summer of 1939 (security, information, real estate, housing and mortgage services, marriage services, foreign travel).
Jewish commercial firms and the associated property, as well as wholesale operations and industry that are Jewish because of the degree to which they are under Jewish ownership, can be de-Jewdified. Important patents and commercial secrets must be transferred to Gentile control.
Jews in the German Reich may no longer own or control property. Jewish stocks must be surrendered.
Jews with German citizenship, or Jews without a nationality, are prohibited from acquiring, selling or disposing of items of gold, platinum, or silver, as well as precious gems and pearls.

Measures against the Jews in the Cultural Arena
Jews are prohibited from attending German theaters, concerts, film theaters, etc.
Jew may not attend German schools. They may only attend Jewish schools.
Jews are restricted to their own Jewish artistic and cultural activities, which have been greatly expanded since the summer of 1933. The “Jewish Cultural Federation” has affiliates in all major cities, incorporating no fewer than 134 Jewish cultural organizations in every area of artistic life.
The regulations implementing the Reich Citizenship Law bring Jews together in the “Reich Federation of Jews in Germany,” for which Jewish religious congregations serve as the local branch office. It has the purpose of encouraging Jewish emigration. It is also responsible for Jewish education and Jewish charity. It is responsible for educating the Jews by establishing the necessary number of public schools and secondary schools, as well as job training schools and courses that will assist in Jewish emigration. Jewish schools are supervised by the Ministry for Science, Education, and Public Education. Jewish clubs, organizations, and foundations can either be dissolved or incorporated into the Reich Federation.

Special Rules for Jews in Other Areas
Jews are prohibited from owning or bearing firearms and ammunition, as well as daggers or swords.
Driving motor vehicles of any type, as well as cars and motorcycles, is also prohibited.
The Reich Minister has authorized the police departments of the provinces and their subordinates to establish regulations for Jews with German citizenship, or those with no nationality, that ban them from certain areas or limit them to certain times. For example, they may be banned from certain districts, or not be allowed in public at certain times.
Jews may not serve as attorneys. A limited number of legal advisers are available to represent Jews. Jews may also not practice medicine.
The legal situations of Jews as tenants or landlords is legally regulated. There may be no contact between German people’s comrades and Jews. Bringing Jews together in exclusively Jewish apartment buildings is to be encouraged and sped up.
If a Jew needs assistance, he must depend on his racial comrades.
Jews may only have names that are typically Jewish. If Jews have other names, they must add and use an additional name (Israel for men, Sara for women).

The Rights of Jewish Mischlinge
Mischlinge [the Nazi term for those of partial Jewish ancestry] — see p. 43! — are not subject to the new Jewish laws!

The Duties of Jewish Mischlinge.
Mischlinge are subject to the Labor Service and the military, but may not be leaders. Under exceptional circumstances, they may have responsibilities in civil defense.

Professions Closed to Mischlinge
Medicine (also, a German married to a Jewess or to a Mischling, may not be a physician).
Civil Service (Mischlinge may not marry civil servants. Exceptions can only be made in the case of Mischlinge, second degree [who were one quarter Jewish]).
They may not be farmers, attorneys, editors, or newspaper publishers. Mischlinge may be craftsmen. They may also be pharmacists.
Mischlinge may not be members of the following organizations:
- Reich Air Raid Association (exceptions only for Mischlinge, 2nd degree).
- First Aid
- Reich Colonial Federation
- NS [National Socialist] Reich Federation for Physical Exercise and its associated clubs and groups
- DAF work groups
- Reich Chamber of Culture (only in exceptional circumstances)
- NSDAP and its divisions
- NS Physicians’ League
- NS Attorneys’ Federation
- NS Teachers’ Association
- Reich Federation of German Civil Servants
- NS Federal of German Technicians
- NS Federation for Wounded Veterans
- NS War Veterans’ Federation
- Mischlinge may be members of the German Labor Front and the GRG, but may not hold leadership positions. They may participate in KdF [Strength through Joy] events.

my back is pretty busted by now lol

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28. From an article "German People's Health from Blood and Soil“ in the New Year's Issue of Der Sturmer, 1935. Taken from German Propaganda Archive (www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa)

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"One single cohabitation of a Jew with an Aryan woman is sufficient to poison her blood forever. Together with the alien albumen she has absorbed the alien soul. Never again will she be able to bear purely Aryan children, even when married to an Aryan. They wilI all be *******s, with a dual souI and the body of a mixed breed. Their children will also be crossbreeds, that means ugly people of unsteady character and with a tendency to illness.

Now we know why the Jew uses every artifice of seduction in order to ravish German girls at as early an age as possible, why the Jewish doctor rapes his patients while they are under anaesthetic. He wants the German girl and the German woman to absorb the alien sperm of a Jew. She is never again to bear German children. But the blood products of all animals right down to the bacteria like serum, lymph, extracts from internal organs, etc. are also alien albumen. They have a poisonous effect if directly introduced into the bloodstream either by vaccination or injection. By these products of sick animals the blood is ravished,, the Aryan is 'impregnated' with an alien species.

The author and abettor of such action is the Jew. He has been aware of the secrets of the race question for centuries and therefore plans systematically the annihilation of the nations which are superior to him, Science and 'authorities' are his instruments for the enforcing of pseudo-science and the concealment of truth."


29. Extracts from the Nuremburg Laws taken from Noakes and Pridham, ‘Documents on Nazism 1919-1945’. NY: Viking Press, 1974

Also available at www.jewishvirtuallibrary.net

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Reich Citizenship Law - 15 September, 1935

Paragraph 2

I) A Reich citizen is a subject of the State who is of German or related blood, who proves by his conduct that he is willing and fit faithfully to serve the German people and Reich.

3) The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights in accordance with the Law.

Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour - 15 September, 1935

Moved by the understanding that purity of the German Blood is the essential condition for the continued existence of the German people, and inspired by the inflexible determination to ensure the existence of the German nation for all time, the Reichstag has unanimously adopted the following Law:

Paragraph 1

I) Marriages between Jews and subjects of the State of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent this law.

Paragraph 2

Extra-marital sexual relations between Jews and subjects of the State of German or related blood are forbidden.

Paragraph 3

Jews may not employ in their households female subjects of the State of German or related blood who are under 45 years of age.

Paragraph 4

I) Jews are forbidden to fly the Reich or National flag or to display the Reich colours.

2) They are, on the other hand, permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.

First [Implementing] Decree to the Reich Citizenship Law - 14 November, 1935

Paragraph 4

1) A Jew cannot be a Reich citizen. He has no voting rights in political matters; he cannot occupy a public office.

2) Jewish officials will retire as of 31 December, 1935...

Paragraph 5

1) A Jew is a person descended from at least three Jewish grandparents who are full Jews by race.

2) A subject of the State of mixed decent (Mischling) who is descended from two full Jewish grandparents is also considered a Jew if:

(a) he belonged to the Jewish religious community at the time this law was issued, or joined the community later;

(b) he was married to a Jew at the time the law was issued, or if he married a Jew subsequently;

(c) he is the offspring of a marriage with a Jew, which was contracted after the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour went into effect; or

(d) he is the offspring of extra-marital intercourse with a Jew and will be born out of wedlock after 31 July, 1936


30. Leading Article by Julius Streicher from "Der Stuermer" of September 1936 (No. 39) Taken from the German Propaganda Archive (www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa)

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To everybody! The "Stuermer" was right - The battle against the devil.

When the Nurnberg decrees for the protection of German blood and the German people were decided upon at the Reich Party RalIy in 1936, there were people who believed that with the creation of these laws the Jewish question was solved. Those who thought and talked along these lines were given a lesson within the year by world events. Only those who had but a superficial knowledge of what the Jewish question means to those who know, could speak of a solution of this question.

At the Reich Party Rally in Nurnberg which has just ended, it must have become clear even to the most simple-minded that the Jewish question is a question of world importance, the solution of which depends on a course of events which stretches out beyond the frontiers of the Third Reich. The speeches made at the Reich Party Congress in Nurnberg have finally put a spoke-in the wheel of those who, consciously or unconsciously, were against the work of the "Stuermer."

Dr. Wagner, the Reich Medical Chief, said in his speech of the 12th September 1936-word for word:

"However, to those who believe that the Jewish question has been finally solved and the matter thus settled for Germany by the Nurnberg decrees, be it said : The battle continues-world Jewry itself is seeing to that anyhow-and we shall only get through this battle victoriously if every member of the German people knows that their very existence is at stake”

Dr. Wagner thereby said what the "Stuermer" has always said to those who did not want to understand its work. At the Reich Party Rally of 1936 National Socialism declared war to the death on the Bolshevist Jews who are setting fire to the world. But wars can only be won if the combatants know for what they are fighting. The "Stuermer's" 15 years, of work of. enlightenment has already led an army of those who know-millions strong-to. National Socialism. The continued work of the "Stuermer" will help to ensure that every German down to the last man will, with heart and hand, join the ranks of those whose aim it is to crush the head of the serpent Pan-Juda beneath their heels. He who helps to bring this about helps to eliminate the devil. And this devil is the Jew.

Julius Streicher.

31. Letter written by Heinrich Himmler, published in Der Sturmer in April 1937

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If in later years the history of the re-awakening of the German people is written and if already the next generation will be unable to understand that the German people was once friendly to the Jews, it will be stated that Julius Streicher and his weekly paper "Der Stuermer" have contributed a great deal towards the enlightenment regarding the enemy of humanity.

Der Reichsfuehrer SS. H. Himmler


32. Hitler speaking at a meeting of Nazi Party district leaders in April 1937 outlining the party position in relation to the Jews. Taken from Noakes & Pridham ‘Nazism 1919 –1945’ vol 2 (1988)

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'All that concerns me is never to take a step that I might later have to retrace and never take a step which could damage us in any way. You must understand that I always go as far as I dare and never any further. It is vital to have a sixth sense which tells you broadly what you can and cannot do. [Hearty laughter and applause] Even in a struggle with an adversary it is not my way to issue a direct challenge to a trial of strength. I do not say come and fight because I want a fight’; instead I shout at him, and I shout louder and louder, ‘I mean to destroy you.’ Then I use my intelligence to help me manoeuvre him into a tight corner so that he cannot strike back, and then I deliver the fatal blow. This is how it is [shouts of bravo]. What I am saying is crystal clear to all of us.’

33. Gestapo internal communications from the night of Kristallnacht (9-10 November 1938) taken from www.historyplace.com
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From Heinrich Müller to all Gestapo offices - transmitted at 11:55 p.m., November 9, 1938:

Actions against Jews, especially against their synagogues, will take place throughout the Reich shortly. They are not to be interfered with; however, liaison is to be effected with the Ordnungspolizei to ensure that looting and other significant excesses are suppressed.

2) So far as important archive material exists in synagogues this is to be secured by immediate measures.

3) Preparations are to be made for the arrest of about 20,000 to 30,000 Jews in the Reich. Above all well-to-do Jews are to be selected. Detailed instructions will follow in the course of this night.

Should Jews in possession of weapons be encountered in the course of the action, the sharpest measures are to be taken.

Addendum for Stapo Cologne: In the Cologne synagogue there is especially important material. This is to be secured by the quickest measures in conjunction with SD.

From Reinhard Heydrich to all Gestapo and SD district and sub district offices - transmitted at 1:20 a.m., November 10, 1938:

Concerning: measures against Jews in the present night. On account of the assassination of the Leg. Sec. von Rath in Paris, demonstrations against the Jews are to be expected throughout the Reich in the present night........the political leadership is to be informed that the German police have received the following instructions from the Reichsführer SS and Chief of Police, to which the measures of the political leadership should be adapted, appropriately:

1. Only such measures should be taken as will not endanger German life or property (i.e. synagogue burning only if there is no fire-danger to the surroundings).

2. Businesses and dwellings of Jews should only be destroyed, not plundered. The police are instructed to supervise this regulation and to arrest looters.

3. Special care is to be taken that in business streets non-Jewish businesses are absolutely secured against damage.

4. Foreign nationals - even if they are Jews - should not be molested.

5. Directly after the termination of the events of this night, the employment of the officials deployed [for the demonstrations] permitting, as many Jews - especially the well-off ones - are to be arrested as can be accommodated in the available prison space. Above all only healthy, male Jews, not too old, are to be arrested. Immediately after execution of the arrests contact is to be made with the appropriate concentration camp regarding the quickest committal of the Jews to the camp. Special care is to be taken that the Jews arrested on this order are not maltreated.

34. Das Schwarze Korps [SS Newspaper] 24 November 1938. Taken from ‘Murderous Science’ by Benno Müller-Hill (New York: CSHL Press, 1998, p.48)

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"So, we are now going to have a total solution to the Jewish question. The programme is clear. It reads: total separation, total segregation! What does this mean? It does not only mean the total exclusion of the Jews from the German economic system... It means much more! No German can be expected to live under the same roof as Jews. The Jews must be chased out of our houses and our residential districts and made to live in rows or blocks of houses where they can keep to themselves and come into contact with Germans as little as possible. They must be clearly identified.... And when we compel the rich Jews to provide for the `poor' of their race, which will certainly be necessary, they will all sink together into a pit of criminality. As this happens, we will be faced with the harsh necessity of eradicating the Jewish underworld, just as we root out criminals from our own orderly state: with fire and sword. The result will be the certain and absolute end of Jewry in Germany; its complete annihilation!"

35. British Newspaper, The News Chronicle, on 11 November 1938: PROGROM RAGES THROUGH GERMANY INCENDIARY MOBS WRECK SHOPS & SYNAGOGUES www.schoolhistory.co.uk
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The rioting began in the early hours of this morning when formations of the Hitler Youth and Storm Troops streamed out of the taverns where they had been celebrating the fifteenth anniversary of Hitler's march on Munich. Drunken and aflame they set about their work of destruction. Synagogues were fired.... squads of youths, baffled by stout doors, set ladders against the windows, broke the panes and jumped in with petrol cans. Meanwhile, bawling, raucous gangs stumbled through the streets hurling bricks and stones through the windows of Jewish shops. The worst scenes of destruction were on Kurfurstendamm, a fashionable shopping center.... here in the early hours of the morning, while the average Berliner were trudging to work, looters smashed with peculiar care the windows of jewellery shops and s******ing, stuffed into their pockets the trinkets and necklaces that fell to the pavement. The average German looked on either apathetic or astonished. They sidled past scenes of destruction half-ashamed ..... Physical assaults on Jews were witnessed in Berlin today. Single Jews were chased through the streets by young Nazis, pummelled and knocked down.

36. Extract from The Daily Telegraph, 12 November 1938. An eyewitness account of Kristallnacht. (http://historyrevision.files.wordpre...ny-sources.pdf)
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Mob law ruled in Berlin throughout this afternoon and evening, and hordes of hooligans indulged in an orgy of destruction. I have seen several anti—Jewish outbreaks during the last five years, but never anything as sickening as this. Racial hatred and hysteria seemed to have taken complete hold of otherwise decent people. I saw fashionably dressed women clapping their hands and screaming with glee, while respectable mothers held up their babies to see the ‘fun’

The fashionable shopping centre of the Capital has been reduced to shambles, with the streets littered with the wreckage of sacked Jewish shops and offices. No attempt was made by police to stop the rioters. The attacks on Jews and their property started all over Germany, as if by signal, soon after midnight, when the beer—halls closed... The caretaker of the synagogue in the Prinzregentenstrasse is reported to have been burnt to death together with his family. It is learned on good authority that two Jews were lynched in Berlin’s East End early this morning and two more in the West End.


37. Extracts from a stenographic report (based on shorthand notes) of a meeting chaired by Hermann Goering on 12th November 1938, two days after Kristallnacht. Taken from ‘Weimar and Nazi Germany’ by John Hite and Chris Hinton (an A Level text book), John Murray Publishers (2000).

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Goering: I have received a letter written on the Fuhrer’s orders, requesting that the Jewish question be now, once and for all, co-ordinated and solved one way or another. Since the problem is mainly an economic one it is from an economic angle that it shall have to be tackled. Naturally a number of legal measures shall have to be taken which fall into the sphere of the Minister for Justice and into that of the Minister of the Interior; and certain propaganda measures shall be taken care of by the Minister for Propaganda. The Minister for Finance and the Minister for Economic Affairs shall take care of the problems falling into their respective areas.

The meeting in which we first talked about this question and came to the decision to aryanise the German economy, to take the Jew out of it, was one in which, to our shame, we only made pretty plans which were executed very slowly. We then had a demonstration, right here in Berlin, we told people that something that something decisive would be done, but again nothing happened. We have had this affair in Paris now (the assassination of von Rath that led to Kristallnacht), more demonstrations followed and this time something decisive must be done!

Because gentlemen, I have had enough of these demonstrations! They don’t hurt the Jew but me, who is the last authority for the co-ordinating of the German economy. If today, a Jewish shop is destroyed… the insurance company will pay the damages. Furthermore goods belonging to the German people are destroyed. I pray that future demonstrations be directed so as not to hurt us.

We have not come together merely to talk again but to make decisions and I implore the competent agencies to take all measures for the elimination of the Jew from the German economy and to submit them to me…. The state will estimate the value of the property and decide what amount the Jew will receive. Naturally this amount is to be set as low as possible. The property shall then be sold according to its real value.

Goebbles: I am of the opinion that this is our chance to dissolve the synagogues… The Jews shall pay for it. We shall build parking lots in their places or new buildings. I deem it necessary to issue a decree forbidding Jews to enter German theatres, movie houses and circuses. Furthermore… we need a decree stating that separate compartments [on trains] for Jews shall be available. [followed by a discussion on how best to organise and legislate for the segregation of train carriages. Goebbles then refers to excluding Jews from German beaches; then forests; then parks.]

Goebbles: Furthermore, Jewish children are still allowed in German schools. That’s impossible. It’s out of the question that any boy should sit beside a Jewish boy in a German high school.

Goering: I too am of the opinion that these economic measures ought to be strengthened by a number of propaganda measures and cultural displays so that everything shall be fixed now and the Jewry will be slapped this week right and left.

Heydrich: The main problem, namely to kick the Jew out of Germany, remains. Following a suggestion by the Commissioner of the Reich we have set up a Centre for the Emigration of Jews in Vienna and that way we have eliminated 50,000 Jews from Austria while from the Reich only 19,000 Jews were eliminated during the same period.


38. Adolf Hitler’s speech to the party congress at Nuremburg in September 1938. Taken from The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939. Edited by N H Haynes. (Volume I, pp.719-720 Oxford University Press, 1942)

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"They complain… of the boundless cruelty with which Germany-and now Italy also-seek to rid themselves of their Jewish elements. All these great democratic empires taken together have only a handful of people to the square kilometre. Both in Italy and Germany there are over 140. Yet formerly Germany, without blinking an eyelid, for whole decades admitted these Jews by the hundred thousand. But now… when the nation is no longer willing to be sucked dry by these parasites, on every side one hears nothing but laments. But lamentations have not led these democratic countries to substitute helpful activity at last for their hypocritical questions; on the contrary, these countries with icy coldness assured us that obviously there was no place for the Jews in their territory. … So no help is given, but morality is saved.”


39. Extract from Hitler’s speech in Wilhelmshaven on 1 April 1939 (http://historicalresources.wordpress...ical-speeches/)
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"Only when this Jewish bacillus infecting the life of peoples has been removed can one hope to establish a co-operation amongst the nations which shall be built up on a lasting understanding."


40. Extracts from a German Foreign Ministry Memorandum on ‘The Jewish Question’ as a factor in foreign policy (25 January 1939).
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“…..the need for a radical solution of the Jewish question also resulted from the developments in foreign affairs, which added 200,000 persons of the Jewish faith in Austria to the 500,000 living in the old Reich…….. The campaign launched in reprisal for the assassination (of von Rath) has speeded up this process (of eliminating Jewish economic influence) so greatly that Jewish retail trade - so far with be the exception of foreign - owned stores - has vanished completely from our streets……… within a limited period of time the existence of Jewish property will in Germany be a thing of the past.

The ultimate aim of Germany’s policy is the emigration of all Jews living in German territory... The Jew has been eliminated from politics and culture, but until 1938 his powerful economic position in Germany and his tenacious determination to hold out until the return of ‘better times’ remained unbroken....... The question, to which countries the organised emigration of the Jews should be directed, could not be solved by the Evian Conference. While in the years 1933-4 more than 100,000 Jews from Germany made their way abroad, legally or illegally, and were able to gain a foothold in a new host nation……. by now almost all countries in the world have sealed their borders hermetically against the burdensome Jewish intruders……….. for Germany the Jewish question will not be solved until the last Jew has left German soil.

Palestine, which has already been designated by a popular catchword as the target of emigration, cannot be considered as such because its absorptive capacity for a mass influx of Jews is insufficient………the British government has limited Jewish immigration into Palestine to a minimum.

Germany is obliged to discern the danger in the creation of a Jewish State……. The realisation that Jewry will always be the implacable enemy of the Third Reich forces us to the decision to prevent any strengthening of the Jewish position. A Jewish State would give world Jewry increased power in international law and relations…... Germany has an important interest in seeing the splintering of Jewry maintained…….. the influx of Jews arouses the resistance of the native population in all parts of the world and thus provides the best propaganda for Germany’s policy toward the Jews. It must be the aim of German foreign policy to strengthen this wave of anti-Semitism…...

The poorer the Jewish immigrant is and the greater the burden he constitutes for the country into which he has immigrated, the stronger the reaction will be in the host country, and the more desirable the effect in support of German propaganda. The aim of this German policy is a future international solution of the Jewish question, dictated not by false pity for a ‘Jewish religious minority that has been driven out’ but by the mature realisation by all nations of the nature of the danger that Jewry spells for the national character of the nations."

41. Hitler speech to the Reichstag 30th January 1939 – The ‘Prophecy Speech’ (Noakes & Pridham ‘Nazism 1919-1945 vol 2 1988).

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‘Europe cannot find peace until the Jewish question has been solved. It may well be that sooner or later an agreement may be reached in Europe itself between nations who otherwise would not find it so easy to arrive at an understanding. There exists sufficient land available on this globe….

One thing I should like to say on this day which may be memorable for others as well as for us Germans. In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and have usually been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance only the Jewish race that received my prophecies with laughter when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and with it that of the whole nation, and that I would among other things settle the Jewish problem.

Their laughter was uproarious, but you think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe.’

42. Explanation of and extract from Reinhard Heydrich's Instructions to Einsatzgruppen leaders, 21 September, 1939 (J Noakes and G Pridham (eds.) Nazism 1919-1945: A Documentary Reader. Vol. 3 Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1988, pp.1051-1053)
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During and following the invasion of Poland, special tasks concerning control of the occupied Polish population, both Christian and Jewish, were entrusted to special SS units known as Einsatzgruppen, or task forces. A significant set of instructions to their commanders was issued by Reinhard Heydrich, SS-Lieutenant-General and head of the Reich Main Security Office, on September 27, 1939. Their significance lay in the setting out of a policy for concentrating the Jews in particular locations in preparation for some subsequent and unspecified "final goal" relating to their eventual disposition.

The instructions stipulated that:

"A distinction must be made between the final goal (which will require a lengthy period) and the stages toward the achievement of this final goal (which can be carried out on a short-term basis).

The following instructions and directives serve simultaneously the purpose of encouraging the chiefs of the Einsatzgruppen to reflect on the practical issues.

The first preliminary measure for achieving the final goal is the concentration of the Jews from the countryside in the larger cities. It must be speedily implemented. … as few concentration points as possible should be established so that only those cities are designated which are either railway junctions or at least lie on a railway line. As a matter of principle, Jewish communities of under 500 are to be dissolved and transferred to the nearest concentration city.

It must be ensured that the economic exploitation of the occupied territories does not suffer as a result of these measures."

These instructions feature importantly in debates concerning the objectives of German Jewish policy at this particular historical juncture. In particular, what interpretation should be placed on the phrase "the final goal" which will require "a lengthy period" and the "stages towards the achievement of this final goal (which can be carried out on a short-term basis)? Does this imply, as some historians contend, that by September 1939 Nazi decision-makers already presaged the extermination of European Jewry, "the final goal"? Alternatively, as other historians contend, was the "final goal", at this time, still construed as "resettlement" in Eastern Poland or elsewhere? Concentration near railway junctions would be compatible with either policy. Reference to the need to ensure the economic exploitation of the occupied territories, on the other hand, would not be inconsistent with a policy of resettlement.


43. Explanation of and extract from a statement made by Heinrich Himmler, Reich Leader of the SS and Chief of the German Police, on 25 November 1939. (J Noakes, G Pridham. Nazism, 1919-1945: A Documentary Reader. Volume 3. p.1055. University of Exeter Press, 1991)
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At the time that this statement was made Himmler had embarked on an ambitious policy of demographic restructuring involving the transfer of ethnic Germans to portions of Poland that had been annexed by the Reich, known as the Reichsgau Wartheland (in western Poland, bordering Germany), movement of Poles who had been resident in this area to the remainder of German occupied Poland, known as the General Government, and movement of Jews from the Reich and the Wartheland to Eastern Poland.

"We won’t waste much time on the Jews. It’s great to get to grips with the Jewish race at last. The more they die the better… We want to put half to three-quarters of all Jews east of the Vistula. We will crush these Jews wherever we can. … Get the Jews out of the Reich… We have no use for Jews in the Reich. We are the most important people here…"

44. Speech by Hans Frank, Governor General of the General Government, Poland, April 12, 1940 (Y Arad, et.al. Documents on the Holocaust. London: Pergamon Press, 1981,pp.197-98)
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“If the authority of the National-Socialist Reich is to be upheld, then it is unacceptable that representatives of the Reich should be obliged to meet Jews when they enter or leave the house, and are in this way liable to infection with epidemics. therefore [intend] to clear the city of Cracow [the seat of the Governor-General of the General Government] of Jews, as far as at all possible, by November 1, 1940. There will be a major operation to move the Jews, on the grounds that it is absolutely intolerable that thousands upon thousands of Jews should go slinking around and occupy apartments in the city which the Führer has granted the great honour of becoming the seat of a high Reich Authority... “

45. RSHA (Reich Main Security Office – part of the SS) directive from 24th April 1940 from ‘Nazism’ (volume 2) by Noakes and Pridham p1074
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46. ‘Some thoughts on the treatment of ethnic groups and Jews in the occupied East’. An internal memorandum written in May 1940 by Heinrich Himmler. Taken from ww2history.com
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“I hope completely to erase the concept of Jews through the possibility of a great emigration of all Jews to a colony in Africa or elsewhere… However cruel and tragic each individual case may be, this method is still the mildest and best, if one rejects the Bolshevik method of physical extermination of a people out of inner conviction as un-German and impossible.”

(next to this section of the report Hitler added the hand written notation: “very good and correct.”)

47. From an internal SS memorandum written by Heinrich Himmler, ‘Some thoughts about the treatment of foreign peoples in eastern territories.’ 23 March 1941 Quoted in "Murderous Science" - Page 48 - by Benno Müller-Hill - History – 1998 www.wikiquote.org

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"I hope to see the very concept of Jewry completely obliterated.“

48. From a speech by Hans Frank, the Nazi governor-general of occupied Poland, on the Madagascar Plan, 12th July 1940. Taken from www.holocaustresearchproject.org
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Another very important point is the decision of the Fuhrer, which he made at my request, that there will be no more transports of Jews into the area of the Government-General (in Nazi controlled occupied Poland).

As a general political observation I would like to state that it is planned to transport the whole pack of Jews (Judensippschaft) from the German Reich, the Government-General and the Protectorate, in the shortest conceivable time after peace has been made, to an African or American Colony. Madagascar is being considered, to be ceded by France for this purpose.

There will be ample room here for a few million Jews on an area of 500,000 sq. kms. I have tried to let the Jews in the Government-General also share in this advantage of building up a new life on a new land. This has been accepted so that there should be a tremendous easing within sight.

49. Extracts from an Internal Foreign Office Memo (dated July 3rd 1940) written by Nazi official Franz Rademacher taken from www.jewishvirtuallibrary.com
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The approaching victory gives Germany the possibility, and in my view also the duty, of solving the Jewish question in Europe. The desirable solution is: all Jews out of Europe.

The task of the Foreign Ministry in this is:

a) To include this demand in the Peace Treaty and to insist on it also by means of separate negotiations with the European countries not involved in the Peace Treaty.

b) To secure the territory necessary for the settlement of the Jews in the Peace Treaty, and to determine principles for the cooperation of the enemy countries in this problem.

c) To determine the position under international law of the new Jewish overseas settlement.

d) as preparatory measures:

There have already been discussions with the Office of the Reichsfuehrer SS in the Ministry of Interior and several departments of the Party. These departments approve the following plan:

In the Peace Treaty France must make the island of Madagascar available for the solution of the Jewish question, and to resettle and compensate the approximately 25,000 French citizens living there. The island will be transferred to Germany under a mandate. Diégo Suarez Bay and the port of Antsirane, which are strategically important, will become German naval bases.

In addition to these naval bases, suitable areas of the country will be excluded from the Jewish territory (Judenterritorium) for the construction of air bases. That part of the island not required for military purposes will be placed under the administration of a German Police Governor, who will be under the administration of the Reichsfuehrer SS.

Apart from this, the Jews will have their own administration in this territory: their own mayors, police, postal and railroad administration, etc. The Jews will be jointly liable for the value of the island. For this purpose their former European financial assets will be transferred for use to a European bank to be established for this purpose. Insofar as the assets are not sufficient to pay for the land which they will receive, and for the purchase of necessary commodities in Europe for the development of the island, the Jews will be able to receive bank credits from the same bank.

As Madagascar will only be a Mandate, the Jews living there will not acquire German citizenship. On the other hand, the Jews deported to Madagascar will lose their citizenship of European countries from the date of deportation. Instead, they will become residents of the Mandate of Madagascar.

This arrangement would prevent the possible establishment in Palestine by the Jews of a Vatican State of their own, and the opportunity for them to exploit for their own purposes the symbolic importance which Jerusalem has for the Christian and Mohammedan parts of the world. Moreover, the Jews will remain in German hands as a pledge for the future good behavior of the members of their race in America.

Use can be made for propaganda purposes of the generosity shown by Germany in permitting cultural, economic, administrative and legal self-administration to the Jews; it can be emphasized at the same time that our German sense of responsibility towards the world forbids us to make the gift of a sovereign state to a race which has had no independent state for thousands of years: this would still require the test of history.

signed Rademacher

50. Hermann Goering’s directive to Reinhard Heydrich to prepare a plan for the ‘Final Solution of the Jewish question’, 31 July, 1941 (www.holocaustresearchproject.org)
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To the Chief of the Security Police and the SD,

SS Gruppenfuhrer [Lieutenant General] Heydrich

Berlin

In completion of the task which was entrusted to you in the Edict dated January 24, 1939, of solving the Jewish question by means of emigration or evacuation in the most convenient way possible, given the present conditions, I herewith charge you with making all necessary preparation with regards to organisational, practical and financial aspects for an overall solution [Gesamtlosung] of the Jewish question in the German sphere of influence in Europe.

In so far as the competencies of other central organisations are affected, these are to be involved.

I further charge you with submitting to me promptly an overall plan of the preliminary organisational, practical and financial measures for the execution of the intended final solution [Endlosung] of the Jewish question.

Goering


51. Comments made by Hitler at a dinner table conversation in October 1941 (John Toland, Adolf Hitler. London: Book Club Associates, 1977, p.702-3)
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"From the rostrum of the Reichstag, I prophesied to Jewry that, in the event of war’s proving inevitable, the Jew would disappear from Europe. That race of criminals has on its conscience the two million dead of the First World War, and now already hundreds and thousands more. Let nobody tell me that all the same we can’t park them in the marshy parts of Russia! Who’s worrying about our troops? It’s not a bad idea, by the way, that public rumour attributes to us a plan to exterminate the Jews. Terror is a salutary thing."


52. Address by Hans Frank, Governor-General of the General Government, Poland, to senior members of his administration, December 16, 1941. (A J Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken: The "Final Solution" in History. London: Verso, 1990, pp. 302-03)

This statement was made five weeks before the meeting of senior officials at Wannsee, Berlin, on January 20, 1942, where the final administrative details concerning the Final Solution of the Jewish question were discussed in detail. The conference had originally been planned for December 9, 1941.

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"Let me tell you quite frankly: in one way or another we will have to finish with the Jews. The Führer once expressed it as follows: should Jewry once again succeed in inciting a world war, the bloodletting could not be limited to the peoples they drove to war but the Jews [themselves] would be done for in Europe. …if the Jewish tribe survives the war in Europe while we sacrifice our blood for the preservation of Europe, this war will be but a partial success. Basically, I must presume, therefore, that the Jews will disappear. … To that end I have started negotiations to expel them to the east

In January there will be a major conference on this question in Berlin to which I shall send State Secretary Dr Buhler. The conference is to be held in the office of SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich at the Reich Security Main Office. A major Jewish migration will certainly begin.

But what is to become of the Jews? Do you think that they will be settled in villages in the conquered eastern territories? In Berlin we have been told not to complicate matters: since neither these territories [nor our own] have any use for them, we should liquidate them ourselves! Gentlemen, I must ask you to remain unmoved by pleas for pity. We must annihilate the Jews wherever we encounter them and wherever possible, in order to maintain the overall mastery of the Reich here….

For us the Jews are also exceptionally damaging because they are being such gluttons. There are an estimated 2.5 million Jews in the General Government, perhaps…. 3.5 million. These 3.5 million Jews, we cannot shoot them, nor can we poison them. Even so, we can take steps which in some way or other will pave the way for [their] destruction, notably in connection with the grand measures to be discussed in the Reich. The General Government must become just as judenfrie [free of Jews] as the Reich."

53. Extract from Goebbels article ‘The Jews Are to Blame’ in Das Reich, 16th November 1941 (taken from ‘History At Source: Nazi Germany 1933-1945’ by John Laver – Hodder and Stoughton 1991)
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54. Excerpts from the minutes of the Wansee Conference prepared by Adolf Eichmann (20th January 1942)
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In view of the dangers of emigration in war-time, and the possibilities in the East, the Reichsfuhrer SS and Chief of the German Police (Himmler) has forbidden the emigration of Jews. Emigration has now been replaced by the evacuation of Jews to the East, as a further possible solution, with the appropriate prior authorisation of the Fuhrer…..However, this operation should be regarded only as a provisional option; but its is already supplying practical experience of great significance in view of the coming final solution of the Jewish question. In the course of this final solution of the European Jewish question approximately 11 million Jews may be taken into consideration.

The Jews are to be utilized for work in the East in an expedient manner in the course of the final solution. In large (labor) columns, with the sexes separated, Jews capable of work will be moved into those areas as they build roads, during which a large proportion will no doubt drop out through natural reduction. The remnant that eventually remains will require suitable treatment; because it will no doubt represent the most (physically) resistant part, it consists of a natural selection that could, on its release, become the germ-cell of a new Jewish revival.

Europe is to be combed through from West to East in the course of the practical implementation of the final solution. The evacuated Jews will first be taken, group by group, to so-called transit ghettos, in order to be transported further east from there.

55. From ‘Racial Policy’ – a 1943 SS pamphlet. This is a pamphlet outlining Nazi racial theories. It seems to have been intended primarily for members of the SS, though the copy I am working from carries the stamp of a school library. The book also suggests a plan for covering the content of the booklet in eleven class periods, indicating it was intended for use in the schools.
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The Jews were behind the teachings of equality by the Church, Liberalism and Marxism. They were the first and most fanatic proponents of the idea. The Jew Paul spread the Christian doctrine of equality. Freemasonry dominated the intellectual world of the French Revolution, and Liberalism grew out of Freemasonry. The Portuguese Jew Ricardo, the “father of classical national economics,” is the prophet of the liberal economic theory of free trade and economic piracy. The foundation of Marxism and Bolshevism is “Das Kapital,” by the Jew Mardochai (Marx).

How did the Jew gain this destructive power over the European peoples? The Jews are a mixed race. The essential characteristic that separates them from all other races and peoples is the instinct for parasitism. The Jews themselves are most clear about this. Karl Marx, the author of “Das Kapital,” says: “What is the essential trait of Jewry? Practicality, self interest. What is the culture of the Jew? Haggling. What is his god? Money.” The Jewish philosopher Spinoza said: “What we require is simple: that we control everything necessary for our own good.”

The parasitic nature of the Jews is clear in its ability to adjust to the host peoples. A characteristic example is the relationship of the Jew to language: Even before our era the Jewish people had changed its language several times. Wherever they went, they took on the host language, though they were generally unable to conceal their racial additions.

Yet the Jews are one of the most racially conscious peoples. The laws of the Old Testament and the Talmud strongly prohibit marriage with Gentiles. Leading Jews have always stressed the importance of race and racial purity. Even the Soviet Union, otherwise opposed to race, had passed measures to protect Jewish blood. The most familiar statement comes from the Jew Benjamin Disraeli (originally d’Israeli, later Lord Beaconsfeld), the longtime British prime minister: “No one may be indifferent to the racial principle, the racial question. It is the key to world history. History is often confusing because it is written by people who did not understand the racial question and the aspects relevant to it... Race is everything, and every race that does not keep its blood from being mixed will perish. . . Language and religion do not determine a race — blood determines it.”

His parasitic nature led the Jew to hold his own race pure, and to strike other races at the core of their being, their racial nature. Only when a people's racial purity has been destroyed is the Jew able to develop freely and without restraint. Disraeli's political policies prove that many Jews consciously work to destroy racial purity. He made Queen Elizabeth Empress of India, creating an opening in England for oriental life styles. He misled the English people with the notion of an Oriental Empire, thereby dulling and falsifying English racial instincts. The Jew also betrayed the peoples of Russia with images of heaven on earth, leading to race mixing to a vast degree, greatly speeding up a process of decay already in progress. The Jew could realize his plans for world domination only when Russia had become weak, without instincts, without culture. That is how we understand Mommsen's description of the Jewish people as the “ferment of decomposition.” As a result, there can never be peace, but only combat, between the Jew and racially aware peoples. Europe will have defeated this threat only when the last Jew has left our part of the planet. The Führer's words at the beginning of the war will be fulfilled: The German people will not be destroyed in this war, but rather the Jew.

56. Extract from Goebbles diary entry for 27th March 1942
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“A judgement is being visited on the Jews that, while barbaric is fully deserved by them. The prophesy which the Fuhrer made about them for having brought on a new world war is beginning to come true in the most terrible manner. One must not be sentimental in these matters. If we did not fight the Jews, they would destroy us. It’s a life and death struggle between the Aryan race and the Jewish bacillus. No other government and no other regime would have the strength for such a global solution of this question. Here, too, the Fuhrer is the undismayed champion of a radical solution necessitated by conditions and therefore inexorable. Fortunately a whole series of possibilities presents itself for us in wartime that would be denied us in peacetime. We shall have to profit by this.”


57. Extract from a speech given by Himmler to SS leaders at Posen on 4th October 1943 (taken from 'History At Source: Nazi Germany 1933-46' By John Laver - Hodder and Stoughton 1991)
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58. Part of Statement by Adolf Eichmann, to an Israeli interrogator in 1960
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I think the war against the Soviet Union started in June 1941. And I think it must have been two months later, it could have been three months later, that Heydrich ordered me to come and see him. I went and he said to me: ‘About the emigration, the Fuhrer’ … With a little speech beforehand: ‘The Fuhrer has ordered the physical extermination of the Jews.’

He said this sentence to me and then, quite contrary to his habit, paused for a long time as if he wanted to test the effect of his words on me. At first I could not grasp the implications because he chose his words carefully. But then I understood and said nothing further because there was nothing more I could say.

59. “Ten responses to Jewish Lackeys” by Kurt Hilmar Eitzen.

The Nazis were always worried about those Germans who did not accept anti-Semitism. In this article from the party monthly for propagandists, the writer provides ten responses to the most common objections they encountered to Nazi anti-Semitic measures. These were arguments intended for everyday use in conversation with fellow citizens
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There are still Jewish lackeys today who attempt to disrupt our storm attack on the Jewish world rulers, trying to stop us or even cause us to fall. The following hints show how one can reply to these arguments by our opponents, or even turn their arguments against them.

Argument 1: “You say that religion is a private matter. But you fight against the Jewish religion!” — Counterargument: “Actually, the Jewish religion is nothing other than a doctrine to preserve the Jewish race.” (Adolf Hitler). “In resisting all government attempts to nationalize them, the Jews build a state within the state (Count Helmuth von Moltke). “To call this state a ‘religion’ was one of the cleverest tricks ever invented.” (Adolf Hitler). “From this first lie that Jewry is a religion, not a race, further lies inevitably follow.” (Adolf Hitler).

Argument 2: “There are decent Jews, after all!” — Counterargument: “This little phrase ‘after all’ proves that they are rare exceptions of no significance to our battle against Jewry as a whole. But Martin Luther saw four hundred years ago that this “decency,” proven by charitable deeds done in as public a manner as possible, is nothing but a hidden cost of business, to repaid a thousand times by uneducated Germans. “Know, dear Christian, and have no doubts about it, that next to the Devil you have no more bitter, poisonous and determined enemy than a genuine Jew. . . If they do something good for you, it is not because they love you, but because they need room to live with us, so they have to do something. But their heart remains as I have said!”

Argument 3: “The Jew has better prices than the German businessman.” — Counterargument: Any crook can sell junk. Jewish crooks have driven thousands of German businessmen to bankruptcy with the glittering trash in their department store palaces. When someone does get good products more cheaply from the Jews than from Germans, it is only because the united Jewish firms force down prices from the manufacturers, which means reducing workers’ wages. He who has bought good products cheaply from the Jew should never forget that the curse of a German worker and the tears of his hungry children come with them!

Argument 4: “There are also ‘white Jews’ [i.e., Gentiles who are as bad as Jews]. — Counterargument: “That speaks against the Jews, not for them! The fact that one calls the crooks among us ‘white Jews’ is proof that being a Jew implies something bad. Otherwise, one would call crooked Jews ‘yellow Christians.’ The fact that there are so many ‘white Jews’ among us proves that the destructive Jewish spirit has already infected wide circles of our population. It is a warning to us that we have to take up the battle against the Jewish world plague everywhere.” (Joseph Goebbels). That is why Point 24 of our party program states: “The party battles the Jewish-materialistic spirit within and outside of us.”

Argument 5: “Mr. Levi is not a Jew, since he has been baptized!” — Counterargument: As we have already shown, Jewry is not a religion. The Führer pointed that out in a sarcastic manner during the period of struggle [1919-1933] when he said that it was a peculiar sort of religion when one could smell its adherents from a great distance! No, a Jew always remains a Jew. Chaim Herz Bückeberg, better known as “Heinrich Heine,” joked: “Are these long noses a kind of uniform that allows the God King Jehovah to recognize his old body guard, even if they have deserted?” “I have no desire to convert the Jews,” Martin Luther wrote, “since that is impossible.” A Jew remains a Jew. “In case of need, a dose of baptismal water saves both business and Jewry at the same time!” (Adolf Hitler).

Argument 6: “It is true that Mr. Moses Freundenstein is a Jew, but his parents and grandparents lived here. He is one of our old established citizens.” — Counterargument: Just as a goat does not become a horse, even if his father and grandfather were in the same stall, a Jew can never become a German, even if his ancestor came to Germany as a peddler in Varus’ army [during the Roman era].

Argument 7: “The Jew is a human being, too!” — Counterargument: “Of course the Jew is a human being too. None of us has ever doubted it. But a flea is also an animal. But not a very pleasant one. Since a flea is not a pleasant animal, we have no duty to protect and defend it, to take care of it so that it can bite and torment and torture us. Rather, we make it harmless. It is the same with the Jews.” {Joseph Goebbels).

Argument 8: “Everything with a human face is equal.” — Counterargument: Thirteen years ago, the Stürmer carried a cartoon. In it, a miserable pig looked up from his sty to a royal lion. “Everything with an animal face is equal!” But what did the lion growl in reply? “That's what you swine would like to think!”

Argument 9: “Anti-Semitism is only something for idiots!” Counterargument: One no longer hears this lie in National Socialist Germany. But one still reads it in the Jewish emigre press abroad, and Jews whisper it here and perhaps some Jewish lackeys still think that. We smile in response, and note that the Jews have never produced a single creative man, but that all great men in every country have been implacable opponents of the Jews. Some “intellectuals” may be distressed when one doubts their understanding, but we will follow the battle cry against Judah that all of the great men of our past have made!

Argument 10: “Can you live with the uproar and accept responsibility for the misery that the laws of the Third Reich bring to thousands of Jewish families?” — Counterargument: “It is almost a miracle that absolutely nothing has happened to Jews in Germany, but rather that only gradually the rights they stole from the Germans in politics and culture have been restored.” (Alfred Rosenberg). But even if a few hundred Jewish families in Germany really did have to go hungry, what is that against the many millions of German families that the Jew murdered over the course of centuries through wars, revolutions, and civil strife, not to mention those ruined through usury and fraud. “In the battle between the races, there is no truce. If you are determined finally to defend yourself, German people, then be pitiless!” (Adolf Hitler).

60. ‘The Jewish Problem’ by Max Eichler.

The book from which this section is taken was intended to provide a citizen's handbook to the Third Reich, with many pictures illustrating the way Nazi Germany worked. This section presents the “Jewish Question” from a Nazi viewpoint. Citizens are told that Nazis measures against the Jews are reasonable and defensive — but there are also hints of what was to come.

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The Jewish Question is as old as the history of Jewry itself. From the days of antiquity to the present, peoples have always risen up to defend themselves against Jewish parasitism. The defense was often bloody. Greater Germany is the first country in the world to find a legal way to separate from the alien Jewish people. In contrast to the views of the last century and of the so-called democrats of today, National Socialism sees the Jewish Question not as a religious problem, but rather as a racial question. After Jews had been removed from the civil service and the press and cultural life had been cleansed, the most important step was the Nuremberg racial laws (see pages 36-47!). The world paid attention. It saw that it was no longer a matter of theory, that it was not merely the anti-Semitism of an earlier age, but rather that the final reckoning with Jewry had begun. World Jewry also realized the inescapable fate that faced the Jewish people. For the first time in their history, the Jews faced a movement that transcended all borders and oceans, one that could no longer be stopped — regardless of whether other peoples resisted or hesitated. The world-wide boycott movement against National Socialist Germany, the war agitation of the world Jewish press, and the gunshots by Jewish murderers that killed Wilhelm Gustloff and Ernst vom Rath, proved that. National Socialism fights its battles to a victorious end with iron determination. It will solve the Jewish Question in a way it thinks right for the German people, regardless of the deadly enmity and songs of hatred on the part of the Jews and their democratic friends. It will do this legally, but without compromise, and finally. It is no accident that the German people was called to do this. No other people gave the Jews such opportunity to carry out their drives as did the German people in the midst of its deepest need. No other people is strong enough to give the Jews the fate they deserve as is the German people! As in so many other areas. National Socialist Germany has given the rest of the world the example of how to deal with the Jewish Question, as is shown by the racial laws of our ally Italy, and by the spread of the Jewish Question to many other countries.

The murder of Ernst vom Rath did not slow legal measures aimed at solving the Jewish Problem, but rather sped them up. The Jews living in Germany had to pay a fine of a billion marks to discourage them from repeating the cowardly murder. Jewish-democratic voices abroad complained about the “poor” Jews. Yet after six years of a National Socialist government, the 700,000 Jews in Germany were worth 8 billion marks, while the nearly 80 million German citizens were worth only 200 billion marks. Each Jew on average had 4.57, or four-and-a-half times, as much as the average German. Jewish net worth, which had been 4 billion marks in 1918, had doubled, at the expense of the German people. Jews also owned substantial property (for example, more than half — about 60% — of Berlin belonged to the Jews, although they were only 3.8% of the population). That proves the extent to which Jewish parasites had exploited the German people. Truly, it is only a small bill that the National Socialist leadership of the German people gave to the Jews. The series of laws and regulations laid out on the following pages bring us nearer to a solution of the Jewish Question in Germany in every regard.

Legal Measures to Solve the Jewish Problem

Excluding the Jews from the German Economy
Jews are prohibited from owning shops, mail order firms, or branches, and from owning an independent craft firm. They are further prohibited from offering goods or business services at markets, exhibitions, or trade fairs of any kind. A Jew can no longer be a factory director, a leading official, or a member of a cooperative.
Shops, mail order firms, and branches owned by Jews are to be closed down and eliminated. Only in particular cases can Jewish firms be aryanized. The same is true for Jewish craft firms.
The Jews were excluded from six branches of industry in the summer of 1939 (security, information, real estate, housing and mortgage services, marriage services, foreign travel).
Jewish commercial firms and the associated property, as well as wholesale operations and industry that are Jewish because of the degree to which they are under Jewish ownership, can be de-Jewdified. Important patents and commercial secrets must be transferred to Gentile control.
Jews in the German Reich may no longer own or control property. Jewish stocks must be surrendered.
Jews with German citizenship, or Jews without a nationality, are prohibited from acquiring, selling or disposing of items of gold, platinum, or silver, as well as precious gems and pearls.

Measures against the Jews in the Cultural Arena
Jews are prohibited from attending German theaters, concerts, film theaters, etc.
Jew may not attend German schools. They may only attend Jewish schools.
Jews are restricted to their own Jewish artistic and cultural activities, which have been greatly expanded since the summer of 1933. The “Jewish Cultural Federation” has affiliates in all major cities, incorporating no fewer than 134 Jewish cultural organizations in every area of artistic life.
The regulations implementing the Reich Citizenship Law bring Jews together in the “Reich Federation of Jews in Germany,” for which Jewish religious congregations serve as the local branch office. It has the purpose of encouraging Jewish emigration. It is also responsible for Jewish education and Jewish charity. It is responsible for educating the Jews by establishing the necessary number of public schools and secondary schools, as well as job training schools and courses that will assist in Jewish emigration. Jewish schools are supervised by the Ministry for Science, Education, and Public Education. Jewish clubs, organizations, and foundations can either be dissolved or incorporated into the Reich Federation.

Special Rules for Jews in Other Areas
Jews are prohibited from owning or bearing firearms and ammunition, as well as daggers or swords.
Driving motor vehicles of any type, as well as cars and motorcycles, is also prohibited.
The Reich Minister has authorized the police departments of the provinces and their subordinates to establish regulations for Jews with German citizenship, or those with no nationality, that ban them from certain areas or limit them to certain times. For example, they may be banned from certain districts, or not be allowed in public at certain times.
Jews may not serve as attorneys. A limited number of legal advisers are available to represent Jews. Jews may also not practice medicine.
The legal situations of Jews as tenants or landlords is legally regulated. There may be no contact between German people’s comrades and Jews. Bringing Jews together in exclusively Jewish apartment buildings is to be encouraged and sped up.
If a Jew needs assistance, he must depend on his racial comrades.
Jews may only have names that are typically Jewish. If Jews have other names, they must add and use an additional name (Israel for men, Sara for women).

The Rights of Jewish Mischlinge
Mischlinge [the Nazi term for those of partial Jewish ancestry] — see p. 43! — are not subject to the new Jewish laws!

The Duties of Jewish Mischlinge.
Mischlinge are subject to the Labor Service and the military, but may not be leaders. Under exceptional circumstances, they may have responsibilities in civil defense.

Professions Closed to Mischlinge
Medicine (also, a German married to a Jewess or to a Mischling, may not be a physician).
Civil Service (Mischlinge may not marry civil servants. Exceptions can only be made in the case of Mischlinge, second degree [who were one quarter Jewish]).
They may not be farmers, attorneys, editors, or newspaper publishers. Mischlinge may be craftsmen. They may also be pharmacists.
Mischlinge may not be members of the following organizations:
- Reich Air Raid Association (exceptions only for Mischlinge, 2nd degree).
- First Aid
- Reich Colonial Federation
- NS [National Socialist] Reich Federation for Physical Exercise and its associated clubs and groups
- DAF work groups
- Reich Chamber of Culture (only in exceptional circumstances)
- NSDAP and its divisions
- NS Physicians’ League
- NS Attorneys’ Federation
- NS Teachers’ Association
- Reich Federation of German Civil Servants
- NS Federal of German Technicians
- NS Federation for Wounded Veterans
- NS War Veterans’ Federation
- Mischlinge may be members of the German Labor Front and the GRG, but may not hold leadership positions. They may participate in KdF [Strength through Joy] events.

my back is pretty busted by now lol

hope this helps x
omg thank you so much for this !!!!
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lolamigo
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My History coursework question is 'Assess the view that Churchill's stance on India was the main reason for his political isolation from 1929-1939' anyone else doing a similar question?
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Pengwyn<3
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(Original post by lolamigo)
My History coursework question is 'Assess the view that Churchill's stance on India was the main reason for his political isolation from 1929-1939' anyone else doing a similar question?
Not the exact but assessing the same. I'm doing ‘The USSR was mainly responsible for the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1953.’ How valid is this assessment of the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1953?'
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LiSkinDicaprio
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(Original post by rizfah irshad)
My history coursework is on the Holocaust and I'm doing was the holocaust premeditated but I need good texts that I can get my research from
any suggestions?
damn so am i, are you year 13 too?
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LiSkinDicaprio
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(Original post by rizfah irshad)
My history coursework is on the Holocaust and I'm doing was the holocaust premeditated but I need good texts that I can get my research from
any suggestions?
damn so am i, are you year 13 too??
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rizfah irshad
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(Original post by LiSkinDicaprio)
damn so am i, are you year 13 too??
yeah :/
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Pengwyn<3
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(Original post by rizfah irshad)
yeah :/
coursework is unit 5, right? then everyone is yr 13
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