If you dobio please please help me

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hshstudent123
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Helpppp meeee
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tipexmaster25
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With what lol
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hshstudent123
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(Original post by tipexmaster25)
With what lol
Thanks for replying!!!!
THE STAGES OF LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS
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tipexmaster25
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(Original post by hshstudent123)
Thanks for replying!!!!
THE STAGES OF LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS
Ohhh I got you- photosynthesis yeah?

So:
1) Light energy excites electrons in chlorophyll
-Light energy is absorbed by photosystem 2, which excites electrons in chlorophyll
-Excited electrons move to a higher energy level, and move along the electron transport chain to photosystem 1.

2) Photolysis of water (using light energy to split water up)
-Since electrons from photosystem 2 are moving along the electron transport chain, they must be replaced (cause it's kind of like an ongoing process).
-Light energy splits water into H+ ions, electrons, and oxygen. (=photolysis)
-Electrons go into electron transport chain. Oxygen is waste product (since photosynthesis produces oxygen). H+ ions just kinda float around but will be useful in next step..
(the equation for this is H2O --> 0.5O2 +2H2) This is kinda hard to read since I can't get them small numbers, but basically per water molecule, there is 1 atom of oxygen and 2 of hydrogen.

3) Energy from excited electrons is used to make ATP (the energy molecule thingy)
-Electrons lose energy as they move down the electron transport chain, obvs this energy has to go somewhere...
-The energy is used to pump H+ ions inside the thylakoids, so the thylakoid has a higher concentration of H+ ions than the stroma. This makes a concentration gradient of H+ ions.
-The H+ ions then diffuse back down the concentration gradient (high to low concentration, just normal diffusion type of thing) into the stroma, via the enzyme ATP synthase. It kinda goes through it like a tunnel, and by going through it makes ATP from ADP+ phosphate. ADP and phosphate are also just kinda floating around so don't worry too much where they come from.

4) Making reduced NADP for the light independent reactions (kinda irrelevant for the LDRs lol)
-Light energy is absorbed by photosystem 1 (kinda like in the first step but its the other photosystem this time) which excites electrons in chlorophyll to a higher energy level.
-The excited electrons (and a H+ ion too!) end up being transferred to NADP to make reduced NADP, which is used in the light independent reaction.

Anyways that's it, this is from my notes which I think I copied from the textbook at school if you have the CGP revision guide its proper useful though
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