please can someone help me with some chemsitry as level asappp :(Watch
i dont understand the difference between a nucleophile and a free radical. please could someone explain it to me xxx i hv a test tomozzz
nucleophile donates a lone pair of electrons
In most organic chemistry, the nucleophile is an :OH- which is attracted to a carbocation (C δ+). The lone pair is denoted with two dots to represent the electrons that are reacting (I use a colon to show this here).
More examples of nucleophiles: H2O:, :Cl-, :Br-, :NH3, :OR-
Any molecule can become a free radical. They are extremely reactive and are able to "steal" an electron from another species to become a non-radical, thus turning the other species into a radical since it has then lost an electron. This process keeps happening until one of the radicals reacts with another radical - two odds always make an even. The unpaired electron is denoted with a single dot on the atom with the unpaired electron.
I keep getting confused ☹️
Well essentially a lone pair of electrons are electrons that are not bonded with an another atom (covalent bond) - Dot and cross diagram attached below this ammonia - Notice that there are 2 red electrons at the top that are not bonded to any of the hydrogen atoms - these are your lone pair of electrons and they usually always exist as lone pair - Now in some compounds like ammonia these lone pair of electrons can be donated to another element like a carbons atom - during a nucleophillic substitution this increases electron density etc. ( This concept is pretty similar to the ionic bond one - where for example KCl - K has a +1 charge and so losing an electron will make it a stable compound and Cl has a -1 charge and so gaining an electron will make it more stable. As a result the K (potassium will donate an electron to make it more stable) - Remember here we are only donating one electron whereas a nucleophile donates a PAIR of electrons. Free radicals on the other hand have a lone pair but they don't give it away, think of it as a greedy sister not giving you her clothes, essentailly free radicals keep it
thanks so much