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Ranitidine
H2 receptor- Antagonist

What is it used for?
Ranitidine is a prescription and over the counter drug. Used to treat conditions such as indigestion, heartburn, acid reflux and stomach ulcers by lowering the amount of stomach acid. The body naturally produces acid to help with the breakdown of food but as the acid is corrosive, the body has a natural mucous barrier to protect the lining of the stomach. When there is a problem with the barrier or the muscular band at the top of the stomach (the sphincter), acid can Escape and irritate the gullet, causing problems.
How does it work and how does it affect the body system
Ranitidine is an antagonist. Antagonists bind to a receptor without activating it to prevent other substances activating it. In ranitidine, H2 blockers(the antagonist) stop acid making cells responding to histamine (the agonist) which is the chemical which stimulates the acid making cells. Therefore, the amount of acid the stomach would produce is reduced.
Interactions and effectiveness
Taking certain drugs together (polypharmacy) can have a positive and negative impact on the patients . Positive impacts include having a synergistic effect which is when two substances combine to create an effect that is greater than one individual substance. However Ranitidine can interact with other medications or vitamins in the body in a negative way. An interaction is when a substance changes the way a drug works. Drugs that Increase your risk of side effects;
Warfarin: increase your risk of bleeding or blood clots.
Glipizide: increase your risk for low blood sugar.
Adverse reactions
Possible side effects from taking this medication include
Skin rash
Constipation
Dizziness
Drowsiness
Headache
Nausea










Propranolol
Beta blocker -antagonist

What is it used for?
Propranolol is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. Blocking them makes the heart beat slowly and reduces force, lowers blood pressure and strain on your heart.
How does it work and how does it affect the body system ?
Propranolol is an antagonist. Antagonists bind to a receptor without activating it to prevent other substances activating it competes with sympathomimetic neurotransmitters for binding to receptors, which inhibits sympathetic stimulation of the heart. Block hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline which make the heart beat fast and with force

Interactions and effectiveness
Taking propranolol with other drugs that treat heart rhythm problems may cause more side effects. These include lower heart rate, lower blood pressure, or heart blockage. Propranolol should not be taken with another beta blocker as it can lower heart rate too much. Drugs that should be avoided whilst taking propranolol include.
amiodarone
bretylium
quinidine
disopyramide
Alcohol can increase levels of propranolol in your body. This can cause more side effects. You shouldn’t drink alcohol while taking this drug.
Adverse effects
The most common side effects from taking propranolol are
slower heart rate
diarrhea
dry eyes
hair loss
nausea



Amoxicillin
What is it used for ?
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic. It's used to treat bacterial infections, such as chest infections,, dental abscesses and urinary tract infections.
How does it work and how does it affect the body system ?
Bacteria must enter your body for them to cause an infection, therefore bacteria is the causative agent ( pathogen that causes a disease) Amoxicillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
Interactions and effectiveness
Some should be taken with food to reduce side effects but others need to be taken on an empty stomach. Taking some medicines at the same time as eating may prevent your stomach and intestines absorbing the medicine, making it less effective.
Consuming alcohol with amoxicillin might increase the risk of unsafe side effects.
You can become resistant to antibiotics and resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Antibiotic resistance happens when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them. That means the germs are not killed and continue to grow, therefore some infections which have become resistant become difficult to treat.
Adverse effects
The most common side effect is gastrointestinal (GI) upset, including:
diarrhea
nausea
vomiting



Humulin I
What is it used for?
Contains isophane insulin (Used to treat diabetes).The insulin works in the same way as natural insulin, by binding to insulin receptors on cells in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle and fat tissue to increase their uptake of glucose from the bloodstream. It also decreases the production of glucose by the liver, and has various other effects that lower the amount of glucose in the blood.
Side effects- Low blood glucose level (hypoglycaemia), Redness, swelling or itching at the injection site.
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