Sorry for two reasons:-
1. For being under stress due to A levels - fully understandable and you are not the only one in this dhow [with stormy seas induced by global warming - sorry for this corny pun - trying to cheer you up !]
2. That you have no joy of getting an answer to your Q for so long - dw I am going to come to your rescue, but get some reading glasses [even if you don't wear specs lol!!] AND eat some chocolate and a bunch of bananas - your brain will need the glucose when my next post arrives [you will know that the almost exclusive source of energy that the brain uses is glucose [fatty acids for heart, yeah?] - just some btw biology for u!!] "What a nerd this guy is!", she goes; "It's OK I reply - I am not known as Sheldon for nothing!"].
Hold on tight to your desk before you open my next post - we don't want to have to deal c a collapsing student as well! - relax: jk!
The promise of genetic therapies has turned into reality in recent years, with new first-line treatments for fatal diseases now available to patients. The development and testing of genetic therapies for respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) has also progressed. The addition of gene editing to the genetic agent toolbox, and its early success in other organ systems, suggests we will see rapid expansion of gene correction options for CF in the future. Although substantial progress has been made in creating techniques and genetic agents that can be highly effective for CF correction in vitro, physiologically relevant functional in vivo changes have been largely prevented by poor delivery efficiency within the lungs. Somewhat hidden from view, however, is the absence of reliable, accurate, detailed, and noninvasive outcome measures that can detect subtle disease and treatment effects in the lungs of humans or animal models. The ability to measure the fundamental function of the lung-ventilation, the effective transport of air throughout the lung-has been constrained by the available measurement technologies. Without sensitive measurement methods, it is difficult to quantify the effectiveness of genetic therapies for CF. The mainstays of lung health assessment are spirometry, which cannot provide adequate disease localization and is not sensitive enough to detect small early changes in disease; and computed tomography, which provides structural rather than functional information. Magnetic resonance imaging using hyperpolarized gases is increasingly useful for lung ventilation assessment, and it removes the radiation risk that accompanies X-ray methods. A new lung imaging technique, X-ray velocimetry, can now offer highly detailed regional lung ventilation information well suited to the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring needs of CF lung disease, particularly after the application of genetic therapies. In this review, we discuss the options now available for imaging-based lung function measurement in the generation and use of genetic and other therapies for treating CF lung disease.(11)
BACKGROUND: Lung delivery of plasmid DNA encoding the CFTR gene complexed with a cationic liposome is a potential treatment option for patients with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial in two cystic fibrosis centres with patients recruited from 18 sites in the UK. Patients (aged >/=12 years) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 50-90% predicted and any combination of CFTR mutations, were randomly assigned, via a computer-based randomisation system, to receive 5 mL of either nebulised pGM169/GL67A gene-liposome complex or 0.9% saline (placebo) every 28 days (plus or minus 5 days) for 1 year. Randomisation was stratified by % predicted FEV1 (<70 vs >/=70%), age (<18 vs >/=18 years), inclusion in the mechanistic substudy, and dosing site (London or Edinburgh). Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the relative change in % predicted FEV1. The primary analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01621867. FINDINGS: Between June 12, 2012, and June 24, 2013, we randomly assigned 140 patients to receive placebo (n=62) or pGM169/GL67A (n=78), of whom 116 (83%) patients comprised the per-protocol population. We noted a significant, albeit modest, treatment effect in the pGM169/GL67A group versus placebo at 12 months' follow-up (3.7%, 95% CI 0.1-7.3; p=0.046). This outcome was associated with a stabilisation of lung function in the pGM169/GL67A group compared with a decline in the placebo group. We recorded no significant difference in treatment-attributable adverse events between groups. INTERPRETATION: Monthly application of the pGM169/GL67A gene therapy formulation was associated with a significant, albeit modest, benefit in FEV1 compared with placebo at 1 year, indicating a stabilisation of lung function in the treatment group. Further improvements in efficacy and consistency of response to the current formulation are needed before gene therapy is suitable for clinical care; however, our findings should also encourage the rapid introduction of more potent gene transfer vectors into early phase trials. FUNDING: Medical Research Council/National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme.(1)
We developed an assay to detect wild-type CFTR in respiratory epithelial cells with the objective to evaluate the efficacy of DNA delivery during in vivo gene transfer. The method is based on the previous observation that the common delta F508-CFTR mutant does not reach the apical membrane as does the transgene product. We thus used a monoclonal antibody, MATG 1031, raised against the first extracellular loop sequence of the CFTR protein and an immunodetection protocol lacking premature fixation or permeabilization. Specificity of MATG 1031 for its epitope was controlled by immunoblotting. In HT29-19A, 184, CAPAN-1 human cell lines, and in respiratory primary cultures, staining with MATG 1031, examined by confocal scanning laser microscopy, appeared as small dots restricted to the apical surface. No such staining was observed in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, in the cystic fibrosis cell line CFPAC-1 or in primary cultures from cystic fibrosis patients. Apical immunostaining with MATG 1031 was restored in CFPAC-1 cells cultured at a low temperature (30 degrees C) and in CFPAC-1 cells transfected with wild-type CFTR Recombinant CFTR was also recognized in CF respiratory cells lipotransfected with wild-type CFTR plasmid DNA MATG 1031 immunostaining was further investigated under blinded conditions in primary cultures derived from nasal curettage. In all the cell cultures examined, our protocol allowed discrimination between non-CF and CF cells. We propose that this method is convenient to detect apical CFTR and may be used to monitor in vivo gene transfer.(4)
Different classes of mutations (class I-VI) of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for lung/pancreatic disease. The most common mutation, DeltaF508, is characterized by expression of precursor forms of CFTR but no functional CFTR. Since only 5-10% of normal CFTR function is required to correct the electrophysiologic defect across the airway epithelium, gene therapy holds promise for treatment of patients with CF lung disease. However, efficient delivery and transgene expression are not the only parameters that may influence the success of gene therapy. Host-specific immune responses generated against the therapeutic CFTR protein may pose a problem, especially when the coding sequence between the normal CFTR and mutated CFTR differ. This phenomenon is more pertinent to class I mutations in which large fragments of the protein are not expressed. However, T cells directed against epitopes that span sequences containing class II-V mutations are also possible. We used MHC-binding prediction programs to predict the probability of cellular immune responses that may be generated against CFTR in DeltaF508 homozygote patients. Results obtained from running the prediction algorithms yielded a few high-scoring MHC-Class I binders within the specific sequences, suggesting that there is a possibility of the host to mount a cellular immune response against CFTR, even when the difference between therapeutic and host CFTR is a single amino acid (F) at position 508.(5)
Gene therapy strategies based on non-viral vectors are currently considered as a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), being liposomes the most commonly used gene carriers. Niosomes offer a powerful alternative to liposomes due to their higher stability and lower cytotoxicity, provided by their non-ionic surfactant and helper components. In this work, a three-formulation screening is performed, in terms of physicochemical and biological behavior, in CF patient derived airway epithelial cells. The most efficient niosome formulation reaches 28% of EGFP expressing live cells and follows caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Transfection with therapeutic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene results in 5-fold increase of CFTR protein expression in transfected versus non-transfected cells, which leads to 1.5-fold increment of the chloride channel functionality. These findings highlight the relevance of niosome-based systems as an encouraging non-viral gene therapy platform with potential therapeutic benefits for CF.(14)
The limitations of conventional treatment therapies in Parkinson's disorder, a common neurodegenerative disorder, lead to the development of an alternative gene therapy approach. Multiple treatment options targeting dopaminergic neuronal regeneration, production of enzymes linked with dopamine synthesis, subthalamic nucleus neurons, regulation of astrocytes and microglial cells and potentiating neurotrophic factors, were established. Viral vector-based dopamine delivery, prodrug approaches, fetal ventral mesencephalon tissue transplantation and dopamine synthesizing enzyme encoding gene delivery are significant therapies evidently supported by numerous trials. The review primarily elaborates on the significant role of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor in alleviating motor symptoms and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of GDNF were established via preclinical and clinical study outcomes. The binding of GDNF family ligands with associated receptors leads to the formation of a receptor-ligand complex activating Ret receptor of tyrosine kinase family, which is only expressed in dopaminergic neurons, playing an important role in Parkinson's disease, via its association with the essential protein encoded genes. Furthermore, the review establishes delivery aspects, like ventricular delivery of recombinant GDNF, intraparenchymal and intraputaminal delivery using infusion catheters. The review highlights problems and challenges of GDNF delivery, and essential measures to overcome them, like gene therapy combinations, optimization of delivery vectors, newer targeting devices, motor symptoms curbing focused ultrasound techniques, modifications in patient selection criteria and development of novel delivery strategies based on liposomes and encapsulated cells, to promote safe and effective delivery of neurotrophic factor and establishment of routine treatment therapy for patients.(2)
Loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection neurons is a key pathology in Parkinson's disease, leading to abnormal function of basal ganglia motor circuits and the accompanying characteristic motor features. A number of intraparenchymally delivered gene therapies designed to modify underlying disease and/or improve clinical symptoms have shown promise in preclinical studies and subsequently were evaluated in clinical trials. Here we review the challenges with surgical delivery of gene therapy vectors that limited therapeutic outcomes in these trials, particularly the lack of real-time monitoring of vector administration. These challenges have recently been addressed during the evolution of novel techniques for vector delivery that include the use of intraoperative MRI. The preclinical development of these techniques are described in relation to recent clinical translation in an adeno-associated virus serotype 2-mediated human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene therapy development programme. This new paradigm allows visualisation of the accuracy and adequacy of viral vector delivery within target structures, enabling intertrial modifications in surgical approaches, cannula design, vector volumes and dosing. The rapid, data-driven evolution of these procedures is unique and has led to improved vector delivery.(13)
Glioma belongs to the most aggressive and lethal types of cancer. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common type of malignant gliomas, is characterized by a poor prognosis and remains practically incurable despite aggressive treatment such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Brain tumor cells overexpress a number of proteins that play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and may be exploited as therapeutic targets. One such target can be an extracellular matrix glycoprotein-tenascin-C (TN-C). Downregulation of TN-C by RNA interference (RNAi) is a very promising strategy in cancer therapy. However, the successful delivery of naked double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) complementary to TN-C sequence (ATN-RNA) requires application of delivery vehicles that can efficiently overcome rapid degradation by nucleases and poor intracellular uptake. Here, we present a protocol for application of [email protected] as a carrier for ATN-RNA to GBM cells. The obtained complexes consisted of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated magnetic nanoparticles combined with the dsRNA show high efficiency in ATN-RNA delivery, resulting not only in significant TN-C expression level downregulation, but also impairing the tumor cells migration.(6)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high fatality rate and limited therapeutic options. Here, we propose a new anti-HCC approach with high cancer-selectivity and efficient anticancer effects, based on adenovirus-mediated Tetrahymena group I trans-splicing ribozymes specifically inducing targeted suicide gene activity through HCC-specific replacement of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) RNA. To confer potent anti-HCC effects and minimize hepatotoxicity, we constructed post-transcriptionally enhanced ribozyme constructs coupled with splicing donor and acceptor site and woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element under the control of microRNA-122a (miR-122a). Adenovirus encoding post-transcriptionally enhanced ribozyme improved trans-splicing reaction and decreased human TERT (hTERT) RNA level, efficiently and selectively ******ing hTERT-positive liver cancers. Adenovirus encoding miR-122a-regulated ribozyme caused selective liver cancer cytotoxicity, the efficiency of which depended on ribozyme expression level relative to miR-122a level. Systemic administration of adenovirus encoding the post-transcriptionally enhanced and miR-regulated ribozyme caused efficient anti-cancer effects at a single dose of low titers and least hepatotoxicity in intrahepatic multifocal HCC mouse xenografts. Minimal liver toxicity, tissue distribution, and clearance pattern of the recombinant adenovirus were observed in normal animals administered either systemically or via the hepatic artery. Post-transcriptionally regulated RNA replacement strategy mediated by a cancer-specific ribozyme provides a clinically relevant, safe, and efficient strategy for HCC treatment.(7)
Based on its rapid expression, simple sequence composition, low immunogenicity, and flexible modification possibilities, in vitro synthesized mRNA has demonstrated strong potential as a candidate for gene therapy. Many efforts have been made to enhance its therapeutic efficacy and safety. Profiting from the development in pathogenesis and materials science, much progress has been achieved in mRNA-based therapy studies. Many mRNA-derived therapeutics including vaccines, antibodies, cytokines, and growth factors have emerged for the treatment of diverse diseases that have multiple modes of action. Novel delivery vectors with enhanced capacity, safety, and properties have been developed to meet the demands of mRNA delivery. Advanced strategies like library screening, environment interaction, and bio-inspiration materials have been used in the investigation process and produced valuable results. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent advances in mRNA-based gene therapy studies.(9)
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), as small non-coding RNA fragments, are one of the widely studied RNAi inducers for gene modulations. The reasonably designed siRNA probes provide a novel potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy via silencing the specific cancer-promoting gene. The optimization of physicochemical properties of delivery vectors, such as stability, the possibility of surface functionalization, size, charge, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and non-immunogenicity with receptor-mediated targeting ligands, is necessary for effective intracellular siRNA delivery. The present review is focused on the recent progress of the non-viral nanocarriers for siRNA cancer treatment based on synthetic approaches associated with cyclodextrin (CD)-based carbohydrate polymers, i.e. CD-cationic polymers, CD-polyrotaxanes, CD-dendrimers, and CD-modified tumor-specific targeting ligands. Besides, the efficiency of nanocarriers-based stimuli-responsive CDs is described for the simultaneous delivery of siRNAs and chemotherapeutic drugs. Further, theranostic CD compounds are introduced for the specific diagnosis and cargo-targeting delivery to the specific disease sites. In the meantime, the development of the inherent fluorescent CD-based supramolecular biomaterials without formal chromophores will open up a new strategy to design an effective theranostic non-viral carrier system.(10)
Modified mRNA (modRNA) is a promising new gene therapy approach that has safely and effectively delivered genes into different tissues, including the heart. Current efforts to use DNA-based or viral gene therapy to induce cardiac regeneration postmyocardial infarction (MI) or in heart failure (HF) have encountered key challenges, e.g., genome integration and delayed and noncontrolled expression. By contrast, modRNA is a transient, safe, non-immunogenic, and controlled gene delivery method that is not integrated into the genome. For most therapeutic applications, especially in regenerative medicine, the ability to deliver genes to the heart transiently and with control is vital for achieving therapeutic effect. Additionally, modRNA synthesis is comparatively simple and inexpensive compared to other gene delivery methods (e.g., protein), though a simple, clear in vitro transcription (IVT) protocol for synthesizing modRNA is needed for it to be more widely used. Here, we describe a simple and improved step-by-step IVT protocol to synthesize modRNA for in vitro or in vivo applications.(16)
Photoreceptor cell death and inflammation are known to occur progressively in retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes are largely unknown. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are essential mediators of cell-to-cell communication with emerging roles in the modulation of immune responses. EVs, including exosomes, encapsulate and transfer microRNA (miRNA) to recipient cells and in this way can modulate the environment of recipient cells. Dysregulation of EVs however is correlated to a loss of cellular homeostasis and increased inflammation. In this work we investigated the role of isolated retinal small-medium sized EV (s-mEV) which includes exosomes in both the healthy and degenerating retina. Isolated s-mEV from normal retinas were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting, and quantified across 5 days of photo-oxidative damage-induced degeneration using nanotracking analysis. Small RNAseq was used to characterize the miRNA cargo of retinal s-mEV isolated from healthy and damaged retinas. Finally, the effect of exosome inhibition on cell-to-cell miRNA transfer and immune modulation was conducted using systemic daily administration of exosome inhibitor GW4869 and in situ hybridization of s-mEV-abundant miRNA, miR-124-3p. Electroretinography and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess functional and morphological changes to the retina as a result of GW4869-induced exosome depletion. Results demonstrated an inverse correlation between s-mEV concentration and photoreceptor survivability, with a decrease in s-mEV numbers following degeneration. Small RNAseq revealed that s-mEVs contained uniquely enriched miRNAs in comparison to in whole retinal tissue, however, there was no differential change in the s-mEV miRNAnome following photo-oxidative damage. Exosome inhibition via the use of GW4869 was also found to exacerbate retinal degeneration, with reduced retinal function and increased levels of inflammation and cell death demonstrated following photo-oxidative damage in exosome-inhibited mice. Further, GW4869-treated mice displayed impaired translocation of photoreceptor-derived miR-124-3p to the inner retina during damage. Taken together, we propose that retinal s-mEV and their miRNA cargo play an essential role in maintaining retinal homeostasis through immune-modulation, and have the potential to be used in targeted gene therapy for retinal degenerative diseases.(17)
BACKGROUND: BCG is the most effective therapy for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Nadofaragene firadenovec (also known as rAd-IFNa/Syn3) is a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus that delivers human interferon alfa-2b cDNA into the bladder epithelium, and a novel intravesical therapy for BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We aimed to evaluate its efficacy in patients with BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. METHODS: In this phase 3, multicentre, open-label, repeat-dose study done in 33 centres (hospitals and clinics) in the USA, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older, with BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status of 2 or less. Patients were excluded if they had upper urinary tract disease, urothelial carcinoma within the prostatic urethra, lymphovascular invasion, micropapillary disease, or hydronephrosis. Eligible patients received a single intravesical 75 mL dose of nadofaragene firadenovec (3 x 10(11) viral particles per mL). Repeat dosing at months 3, 6, and 9 was done in the absence of high-grade recurrence. The primary endpoint was complete response at any time in patients with carcinoma in situ (with or without a high-grade Ta or T1 tumour). The null hypothesis specified a complete response rate of less than 27% in this cohort. Efficacy analyses were done on the per-protocol population, to include only patients strictly meeting the BCG-unresponsive definition. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of treatment. The study is ongoing, with a planned 4-year treatment and monitoring phase. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02773849. FINDINGS: Between Sept 19, 2016, and May 24, 2019, 198 patients were assessed for eligibility. 41 patients were excluded, and 157 were enrolled and received at least one dose of the study drug. Six patients did not meet the definition of BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and were therefore excluded from efficacy analyses; the remaining 151 patients were included in the per-protocol efficacy analyses. 55 (53.4%) of 103 patients with carcinoma in situ (with or without a high-grade Ta or T1 tumour) had a complete response within 3 months of the first dose and this response was maintained in 25 (45.5%) of 55 patients at 12 months. Micturition urgency was the most common grade 3-4 study drug-related adverse event (two [1%] of 157 patients, both grade 3), and there were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Intravesical nadofaragene firadenovec was efficacious, with a favourable benefit:risk ratio, in patients with BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This represents a novel treatment option in a therapeutically challenging disease state.(3)
Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAs) have shown great potential for cancer viral gene therapy in clinical studies. To date, clinical trials have shown that the curative efficacy of OAs is still limited by hepatic sequestration and preexisting neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), which decrease the accumulation of the OAs in tumors. Herein, with the biosilicification method, we encapsulated an OA encoding the anticancer gene Trail (OA-Trail) with silica, which significantly improved virus distribution and tumor inhibition. In vitro and in vivo results indicated that compared with the native OA, biosilicified OA-Trail ([email protected]) showed significantly reduced viral clearance in the liver and evaded nAb degradation, inducing an efficacious anticancer effect under the premise of biocompatibility. These achievements present an alternative strategy involving biosilicification for enhanced OA-based cancer gene therapy.(8)
Interleukin 12 (IL12) is a potent pro-inflammatory chemokine with multifunction, including promoting cytotoxic T-cell-mediated killing of cancer cells. IL12-based cancer gene therapy can overcome IL12's life-threatening adverse effects, but its clinical translation has been limited by the lack of systemic gene-delivery vectors capable of efficiently transfecting tumors to produce sufficient local IL12. Macrophages inherently excrete IL12, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major tumor component taking up a large fraction of the vectors arriving in the tumor. It is thus hypothesized that a gene vector efficiently transfecting both cancer cells and TAMs would make the tumor to produce sufficient IL12; however, gene transfection of TAMs is challenging due to their inherent strong degradation ability. Herein, an IL12 gene-delivery vector is designed that efficiently transfects both cancer cells and TAMs to make them as a factory for IL12 production, which efficiently activates anticancer immune responses and remodels the tumor microenvironment, for instance, increasing the M1/M2 ratio by more than fourfold. Therefore, the intravenously administered vector ******s tumor growth and doubles survival in three animal models' with negligible systemic toxicities. This work reports the first nonviral IL12 gene delivery system that effectively makes use of both macrophages and tumor cells.(12)
Interleukin 12 (IL12) is a potent pro-inflammatory chemokine with multifunction, including promoting cytotoxic T-cell-mediated killing of cancer cells. IL12-based cancer gene therapy can overcome IL12's life-threatening adverse effects, but its clinical translation has been limited by the lack of systemic gene-delivery vectors capable of efficiently transfecting tumors to produce sufficient local IL12. Macrophages inherently excrete IL12, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major tumor component taking up a large fraction of the vectors arriving in the tumor. It is thus hypothesized that a gene vector efficiently transfecting both cancer cells and TAMs would make the tumor to produce sufficient IL12; however, gene transfection of TAMs is challenging due to their inherent strong degradation ability. Herein, an IL12 gene-delivery vector is designed that efficiently transfects both cancer cells and TAMs to make them as a factory for IL12 production, which efficiently activates anticancer immune responses and remodels the tumor microenvironment, for instance, increasing the M1/M2 ratio by more than fourfold. Therefore, the intravenously administered vector ******s tumor growth and doubles survival in three animal models' with negligible systemic toxicities. This work reports the first nonviral IL12 gene delivery system that effectively makes use of both macrophages and tumor cells.(15)
1. Alton E, Armstrong DK, Ashby D, Bayfield KJ, Bilton D, Bloomfield EV, et al. Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Sep;3(9):684-91.
2. Behl T, Kaur I, Kumar A, Mehta V, Zengin G, Arora S. Gene Therapy in the Management of Parkinson's Disease: Potential of GDNF as a Promising Therapeutic Strategy. Curr Gene Ther. 2020;20(3):207-22.
3. Boorjian SA, Alemozaffar M, Konety BR, Shore ND, Gomella LG, Kamat AM, et al. Intravesical nadofaragene firadenovec gene therapy for BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a single-arm, open-label, repeat-dose clinical trial. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Nov 27.
4. Demolombe S, Baro I, Bebok Z, Clancy JP, Sorscher EJ, Thomas-Soumarmon A, et al. A method for the rapid detection of recombinant CFTR during gene therapy in cystic fibrosis. Gene Ther. 1996 Aug;3(8):685-94.
5. Figueredo J, Limberis MP, Wilson JM. Prediction of cellular immune responses against CFTR in patients with cystic fibrosis after gene therapy. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007 May;36(5):529-33.
6. Grabowska M, Grzeskowiak BF, Rolle K, Mrowczynski R. Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Carrier of dsRNA for Gene Therapy. Methods Mol Biol. 2021;2211:69-81.
7. Han SR, Lee CH, Im JY, Kim JH, Kim SJ, Cho YW, et al. Targeted suicide gene therapy for liver cancer based on ribozyme-mediated RNA replacement through post-transcriptional regulation. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2021 Mar 5;23:154-68.
8. Kong H, Zhao R, Zhang Q, Iqbal MZ, Lu J, Zhao Q, et al. Biosilicified oncolytic adenovirus for cancer viral gene therapy. Biomater Sci. 2020 Oct 7;8(19):5317-28.
9. Lei S, Zhang X, Li J, Gao Y, Wu J, Duan X, et al. Current Progress in Messenger RNA-Based Gene Therapy. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2020 Jul 1;16(7):1018-44.
10. Mousazadeh H, Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi Y, Dadashpour M, Zarghami N. Cyclodextrin based natural nanostructured carbohydrate polymers as effective non-viral siRNA delivery systems for cancer gene therapy. J Control Release. 2020 Nov 11.
11. Parsons D, Donnelley M. Will Airway Gene Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis Improve Lung Function? New Imaging Technologies Can Help Us Find Out. Hum Gene Ther. 2020 Sep;31(17-18):973-84.
12. Qiu N, Wang G, Wang J, Zhou Q, Guo M, Wang Y, et al. Tumor-Associated Macrophage and Tumor-Cell Dually Transfecting Polyplexes for Efficient Interleukin-12 Cancer Gene Therapy. Adv Mater. 2020 Dec 3:e2006189.
13. Richardson RM, Bankiewicz KS, Christine CW, Van Laar AD, Gross RE, Lonser R, et al. Data-driven evolution of neurosurgical gene therapy delivery in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2020 Nov;91(11):1210-8.
14. Sainz-Ramos M, Villate-Beitia I, Gallego I, N ALQ, Lopez-Mendez TB, Eritja R, et al. Non-viral mediated gene therapy in human cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells recovers chloride channel functionality. Int J Pharm. 2020 Oct 15;588:119757.
15. Sheikh Hosseini M, Larijani B, Gholipoor Kakroodi Z, Shokoohi M, Moarefzadeh M, Sayahpour FA, et al. Gene therapy as an emerging therapeutic approach to breast cancer: new developments and challenges. Hum Gene Ther. 2020 Dec 14.
16. Sultana N, Sharkar MTK, Hadas Y, Chepurko E, Zangi L. In Vitro Synthesis of Modified RNA for Cardiac Gene Therapy. Methods Mol Biol. 2021;2158:281-94.
17. Wooff Y, Cioanca AV, Chu-Tan JA, Aggio-Bruce R, Schumann U, Natoli R. Small-Medium Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Cargo in Retinal Health and Degeneration: Mediators of Homeostasis, and Vehicles for Targeted Gene Therapy. Front Cell Neurosci. 2020;14:160.
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