Xcraft
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Hey, I'm currently revising and I've come across a question I'm not too sure about if anyone can help me that'll be great!
the question is ‘Jenner’s discovery of vaccination was the most significant improvement in the prevention of disease in the industrial period’. How far do you agree? , I need help with things such as important figures during the industrial period.
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ephnjuu
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hello I think I can help you out with that
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theoneyoulove
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In 1798, Edward Jenner published his work on vaccinations, in particular for smallpox. His work was a landmark in the development of preventative medicine. He heard that milkmaids did not get smallpox but they did catch the much milder cowpox. Using careful scientific methods Jenner investigated and discovered that it was true; people who had cowpox did not get smallpox. Testing his theory on a boy called James Phipps, he injected him with pus from the sores of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid with cowpox. Jenner then injected him with smallpox. James didn’t catch the disease. Parliament rewarded Jenner in 1802 and 1807. Vaccination was made free for infants in 1840 and compulsory in 1853.


The greatest medical development before 1850 was the discovery by Edward Jenner of a successful method of preventing smallpox, one of the deadliest diseases of the time. He was, therefore, a pioneer in preventive medicine.

Smallpox epidemics occurred every few years, leaving many dead. It killed about 30 per cent of those infected, while survivors were left horribly marked. In the 1730s, a young Welsh poet, Cadwaladr Roberts described himself as this grubby elf with perforated skin and thought that only a keen witch would now marry him.

In Turkey, Lady Mary Montague saw a method of inoculation which involved giving people a mild dose of the smallpox disease to make them immune. She introduced the idea to Britain. However, inoculation involved risks. Some died of the mild dose they were given, while the poor could not afford the inoculation. Among those inoculated was eight-year-old Edward Jenner. He survived but at the expense of a lifetime of poor health.





In the late 18th century, Edward Jenner, a doctor in Gloucester, observed that the local dairy maids, and other people who worked with cows, seemed to be immune from smallpox.

He believed that people who had caught a disease called cowpox seemed to have immunity. He carried out a series of experiments to test his idea.

He inoculated a boy called James Phipps with cowpox. When Jenner was sure that the inoculation had worked, he deliberately gave the boy smallpox but the disease had no effect. Jenner had proved his idea.

In 1798, Jenner sent his findings to The Royal Society, but they rejected his work. They were not the only objectors.

Some people were suspicious of the idea of using cowpox to cure a human disease.
Doctors were making money out of inoculations and did not want to lose that income.
Vaccination was seen as dangerous – but this was because doctors often used infected needles.
Instead, Jenner published his findings himself. He called his technique vaccination, from the Latin word for cow, vacca. Parliament was obviously impressed and gave Jenner £30,000 to open a vaccination clinic in London. By 1803, doctors in America were using his idea and in 1805, Napoleon had his soldiers vaccinated.


Even after it was shown that the vaccine reduced the number of smallpox deaths, the use of vaccination was still controversial. In Newport, some parents were prosecuted for refusing to have their children vaccinated.

Even some members of the medical profession were not convinced of the value of vaccination. In a conference in Cardiff as late as 1869, a Dr Haviland objected to the compulsory vaccination of children in the Cardiff area, arguing that the case for vaccination was unproven.

Even Edward Jenner could not explain why vaccination worked. He did not have the powerful microscope that would have let him examine the smallpox virus. We now know that cowpox worked because the virus was almost the same as the smallpox virus.

However, Jenner deserves to be remembered as the first to immunise against disease. His work was based on careful observation and experiment, and developed the idea that a mild form of a disease gives immunity.

In spite of Jenner’s breakthrough, until the mid 19th century most people continued to believe that miasma caused smallpox, so attempts to prevent disease were still hampered. In France, however, the scientist Louis Pasteur, an admirer of Jenner, was convinced that vaccination could be used to prevent other diseases.

Today, vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Widespread immunity due to vaccination was largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox by 1980, and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that vaccines are currently available for 25 different preventable infections and has campaigns of immunisation operating across the globe.
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hello
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Rootkit77
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(Original post by Xcraft)
Hey, I'm currently revising and I've come across a question I'm not too sure about if anyone can help me that'll be great!
the question is ‘Jenner’s discovery of vaccination was the most significant improvement in the prevention of disease in the industrial period’. How far do you agree? , I need help with things such as important figures during the industrial period.
industrial era was characterized by various infections following poor living and work conditions. vaccines offered groundbreaking discovery in containing infections like smallpox and infant infections. infact jenner's discovery remain pivotal in the modern world. so
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