Explain why accurate DNA replication is essential for producing functional proteins

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zarahh09
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For this question, this is all I could come up with:

DNA replication plays an important role in the growth and renewal of cells. It is very important that DNA is replicated accurately, with new cells receiving an exact copy of the genetic sequence.
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macrophage
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The shape and therefore the function of proteins is affected by the sequence of amino acids coded for by the DNA code via the codon system - if an inaccurate DNA code is inherited, an incorrect amino acid may be coded for leading to a possible non functional protein since the interactions between amino acids in the protein will not be the same as before
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John Wick11
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Or worse, inaccurate replication may result in mutations which could possibly lead to cancer.
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StriderHort
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^ Yeah those ^

If replicated inaccurately It will likely code the wrong amino acids or stop/start codons = duff proteins

I can't remember offhand, but there is different names for DNA mutations depending how the error affects the amino acids and therefore the protein produced.
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macrophage
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(Original post by StriderHort)
^ Yeah those ^

If replicated inaccurately It will likely code the wrong amino acids or stop/start codons = duff proteins

I can't remember offhand, but there is different names for DNA mutations depending how the error affects the amino acids and therefore the protein produced.
Definitely!
Although I think the large majority of mutations actually have no effect on protein function (due to DNA degeneracy and the large proportion of non coding regions in the genetic code
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StriderHort
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(Original post by macrophage)
Definitely!
Although I think the large majority of mutations actually have no effect on protein function (due to DNA degeneracy and the large proportion of non coding regions in the genetic code
Yeah there's plenty of possibilities where it basically does various forms of nothing, or pretty much by fluke the corrupted sequence still codes the exact same amino acid and protein with no change. eg ACC, ACU, ACA, ACG all code Threonine so there is evidently a bit of room for error.

(I dunno if there is any difference between an amino acid made using one valid codon over the other, a bit beyond me likely)
Last edited by StriderHort; 3 months ago
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macrophage
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(Original post by StriderHort)
(I dunno if there is any difference between an amino acid made using one valid codon over the other, a bit beyond me likely)
This actually came up in my Cambridge interview haha and I had no clue, but I think it would affect the RNA splice sites and possibly the different concentrations of different tRNAs in the cell would lead to inefficient synthesis, can’t quite remember though
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Bio 7
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(Original post by StriderHort)
^ Yeah those ^

If replicated inaccurately It will likely code the wrong amino acids or stop/start codons = duff proteins

I can't remember offhand, but there is different names for DNA mutations depending how the error affects the amino acids and therefore the protein produced.
Substitution, deletion and insertion. The latter two lead to a shift in the sequence and causes havoc, with substitution you might get the working amino acid.
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StriderHort
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(Original post by macrophage)
This actually came up in my Cambridge interview haha and I had no clue, but I think it would affect the RNA splice sites and possibly the different concentrations of different tRNAs in the cell would lead to inefficient synthesis, can’t quite remember though
I'd hope it would be the sort of question to see how someone thought rather than seek a definitive answer.

One of my college entry Q's was actually to find the area of a 1m per side square... I literally spent 15 minutes trying to over analyse the hell out of it... I even asked if I could use a calculator
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macrophage
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(Original post by StriderHort)
I'd hope it would be the sort of question to see how someone thought rather than seek a definitive answer.

One of my college entry Q's was actually to find the area of a 1m per side square... I literally spent 15 minutes trying to over analyse the hell out of it... I even asked if I could use a calculator
Yeah definitely, those were my suggestions but he never actually gave me a definitive answer
Oh no haha, probably would’ve done the same
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StriderHort
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(Original post by macrophage)
Yeah definitely, those were my suggestions but he never actually gave me a definitive answer
Oh no haha, probably would’ve done the same
I'm actually getting chills just thinking about that day.. "Oh God! no matter how many times I type in 1 x 1 it still = 1! What am I missing!?! my education depends on this!' I'm amazed the interviewer invigilating was able to keep a straight face.
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StriderHort
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(Original post by Bio 7)
Substitution, deletion and insertion. The latter two lead to a shift in the sequence and causes havoc, with substitution you might get the working amino acid.
Yea I remember those 3 as the types of mutation at the base level, but I know there's more that relate more to the codon/acids/proteins like nonsense mutations and such *googles* or whatever the hell a Frameshift mutation is (still obv caused by those initial Sub/Del/Ins)

(actually i suppose your post points out what the hell a Frameshift mutation is )
Last edited by StriderHort; 3 months ago
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Bio 7
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(Original post by StriderHort)
Yea I remember those 3 as the types of mutation at the base level, but I know there's more that relate more to the codon/acids/proteins like nonsense mutations and such *googles* or whatever the hell a Frameshift mutation is (still obv caused by those initial Sub/Del/Ins)

(actually i suppose your post points out what the hell a Frameshift mutation is )
Frameshift is the word I wanted but forgot, just used shift.
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