your mongolian
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so this afternoon i had an lesson about condensation and hydrolysis and and the beta and alpha helix i did not get it i feel so lost can anyone explain it to because it is so complex
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Csilla555
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Hello,

I hope this will help a little bit.

In Biology when you are talking about macromolecules (Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Polynucleotides) then they are called macro because they are large (polymers) and they are made up of repeating units (monomers) /like they were a necklace with lots of repeating units, the string of beads/.

When you want to create polymers through a process called polymerisation you will add these monomers to the building chain.
You use a chemical process, called condensation. When two monomers joined together by condensation reaction, a water molecule (H2O) is released.
/Check some images on the net where for example two glucose monomers join together by condensation reaction. Note how water molecule leaves./

But once you have at least two monomers joining together (for example in Carbohydrates, a monomer (like glucose) + monomer (another glucose, or for example fructose) will give you a disaccharide (two monomers joining together) you can decide to break them apart /see below: hydrolysis/.
If you join a lot of monomers together then you get a polymer (in case of Carbohydrates, you call it polysaccharide).

You can break them down, separate them by the chemical process called hydrolysis.
So hydrolysis is the opposite of condensation.
'Hydro' means adding water...
So while in condensation reaction water is released by the reaction, in hydrolysis you add the H2O molecule and that helps to break the bond between the monomers.



Your second question was about alpha helix and beta sheet structure.
I suppose you were asking about protein structure.

Proteins have 3+1 structure.
The first is the amino acid sequence.

The second is the alpha helix or beta sheet structure.
This is the shape which the polypeptide chain forms as a result of hydrogen bonding. Check the image I uploaded (hopefully I can attach it).

The tertiary structure of a protein is due to the bending and twisting of the polypeptide helix into a compact structure (a proper 3D structure). All three types of bond, disulfide, ionic and hydrogen bond, contribute to the maintenance of the tertiary structure.

Some proteins also have quaternary structure. (not all of them). But if your protein is made up of more than 1 polypeptide chain then we say that it has quaternary structure as well. Like haemoglobin. Check its structure on the net. It has 4 polypeptide chains.
But 2 would be enough to have quaternary structure of a protein.


I hope this helps.

Good luck!!
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your mongolian
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(Original post by Csilla555)
Hello,

I hope this will help a little bit.

In Biology when you are talking about macromolecules (Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Polynucleotides) then they are called macro because they are large (polymers) and they are made up of repeating units (monomers) /like they were a necklace with lots of repeating units, the string of beads/.

When you want to create polymers through a process called polymerisation you will add these monomers to the building chain.
You use a chemical process, called condensation. When two monomers joined together by condensation reaction, a water molecule (H2O) is released.
/Check some images on the net where for example two glucose monomers join together by condensation reaction. Note how water molecule leaves./

But once you have at least two monomers joining together (for example in Carbohydrates, a monomer (like glucose) + monomer (another glucose, or for example fructose) will give you a disaccharide (two monomers joining together) you can decide to break them apart /see below: hydrolysis/.
If you join a lot of monomers together then you get a polymer (in case of Carbohydrates, you call it polysaccharide).

You can break them down, separate them by the chemical process called hydrolysis.
So hydrolysis is the opposite of condensation.
'Hydro' means adding water...
So while in condensation reaction water is released by the reaction, in hydrolysis you add the H2O molecule and that helps to break the bond between the monomers.



Your second question was about alpha helix and beta sheet structure.
I suppose you were asking about protein structure.

Proteins have 3+1 structure.
The first is the amino acid sequence.

The second is the alpha helix or beta sheet structure.
This is the shape which the polypeptide chain forms as a result of hydrogen bonding. Check the image I uploaded (hopefully I can attach it).

The tertiary structure of a protein is due to the bending and twisting of the polypeptide helix into a compact structure (a proper 3D structure). All three types of bond, disulfide, ionic and hydrogen bond, contribute to the maintenance of the tertiary structure.

Some proteins also have quaternary structure. (not all of them). But if your protein is made up of more than 1 polypeptide chain then we say that it has quaternary structure as well. Like haemoglobin. Check its structure on the net. It has 4 polypeptide chains.
But 2 would be enough to have quaternary structure of a protein.


I hope this helps.

Good luck!!
thanks you wrote it like an essay thank you for your time
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Csilla555
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(Original post by your mongolian)
thanks you wrote it like an essay thank you for your time
I hope it helps.

Nice topic

Happy studying!
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