A level biology 25 mark question HELP??

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what topics can I write about for this question
The importance of the control of movement in cells and organisms
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movement of substances using golgi apparatus and vesicles
mass transport in animals (blood and O2)
mass flow theory in plants
movement of ions across membranes for action potential maybe?
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As per my teaching of exam tactics at various junctures on TSR, take first macro, then micro structure THEN function, for each of CELL, PLANT, ANIMAL. To remind yourself ALL the facts in your cerebrum, have an organized system EITHER head to toe OR body systems as in cardio, respiratory, etc., so you do not miss anything - remember what counts is mark - mark - mark (!) - JUST :LIKE in hockey it's goal - goal - goal that matters!

I'll get the ball rolling for you [AND MAKE YOU THINK YEAH? - sorry, I know millenials hate using their brains!]

OK are you ready? Let's go!

  • CELL - oc materials need to move in and out [remember Q is about control] - nutrition fort the cell needs to move into the cell, agreed: controlled by cell membrane [made of what? - yes well done: phospholipid bilayer so let's in non-polar substances = controls movement of substances e.g. ------------ go on, one e.g. will do! yes fine: lipid-soluble drugs e.g. into the eye across the cornea [cornea has 5 layers: epithelium and endothelium are lipophilic NOT stroma - bit too complex BUT REMEMBER THE BONUS MARKS FOR OUT-OF-SYLLABUS INFO?] [cornea controls what goes into eye - ([thinking of cornea, it gets its oxygen supply from the air UNLIKE OTHER ORGANS Why? cos it cannot have blood vessels -needs to be transparent]).Oppo for excretion of unwanted material out of cell: you work it out, please - go on you can do it! THINK THINK THINK!
  • CELL still - mitochondria: movement of ATP out after respiration makes it is controlled by conc gradients - goes where it is needed.
  • PLANT: not my specialty - you work it out. CLUE: take leaf [O2 in], then root [root hairs and water, yeah?]; flowers [reproduction: pistil, stamens etc - movement of pollen - also pollination: and seed dispersal: how is coconut dispersed - stuck? OK where does it grow yes seaside, so think water, yeah?
  • ANIMALS: Cardio: blood: what does it move and how is this controlled? Yes brilliant:- food [glucose, amino acids, fatty acids]; hormones; antibodies; water; RBCs; WBCs [their function??: google "cytokines" "neutrophils"; don't forget heat [which organ produces most heat? ---------------------------think: which are the most active? yes liver at rest; what about in exercise? Oc well done! - muscles - heat movement is controlled as needed by various parts of the body - may not be in mark scheme, but examiner will be impressed!]
  • Cardio still: heart: movement of blood by heart pumping: how is it controlled? Yes correct: rate and force of contraction depend on level of activity: faster heartbeat when playing hockey - sorry you are scared of the ball like my cousin!! :mad:] - blood pressure controlled precisely to control movement of blood to different organs [narrowing/widening of arterioles helps control blood flow: by above but also by carotid sinus sending messages to hypothalamus, yes - what happens if blood is moving too fast? Oc controlled by sending less NAS to sinoatrial node ----> heart rate slowed ----> bp down ----> slow down [controls] blood movement.
  • Take MUSCLES first MACROSCOPIC: muscle contraction causes movement of bones ----> locomotion: must be controlled - [when you move your fork to your mouth to eat that lovely roast beef your mum cooked :yum:, you don't [normally] poke your cheek with the fork, do you? IT IS CONTROLLED[ - how? By messages [nerve impulses] going from muscle back to brain telling the brain where EXACTLY your fork has reached at a specific moment - brain then controls efferent impulses to your biceps muscle and your pectoralis muscles [on front of chest];
  • MUSCLE: MICROSCOPIC/MOLECULAR: movement of Ca++ out of sarcoplasmic reticulum [not come across this? - dw: Greek sarco = of muscle [so ER of muscle cells, happy?] - this Ca++ entry into cytosol must be controlled: how? google "calcium channels" {OUTSIDE SYLLABUS: drugs called Ca++ channel blockers reduce this movement of Ca++ ----> arteriolar smooth muscle relaxes ----> arterioles dilate ----> bp falls [used to treat high bp] -----> muscle action controlled.
  • DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: absorption [movement] of glucose, amino acids, etc into blood controlled by levels inside blood, which will determine conc gradient, yeah? Mention briefly: GLUT.
  • DO THE SAME WITH RESPIRATORY [O2}; ENDOCRINE: [e.g. insulin and control of glucose movement into/out of cells.
  • RENAL: mention reabsorption in proximal tubule controlled by active transport limits; Too high levels of glucose in diabetes mellitus ----> movement of glucose out of body in the urine ----> loss of control -----> polyuria [Greek poly = many or much so too much urine passed cos of water going into urine by osmosis ----> etc etc etc etc etc.
  • REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: movement of sperm using tail [same 9+2 fibre] structure as flagellum of e.g. bacterium.
I hope this has got your brain into overdrive - control your brain with a short break now and then!!

Ah I heard that: You said "Easy peasy, lemon squeezy!!" - well, you are damn right it is a piece of Madeira cake - yummy! :yum:

{there is a reason for the bold "control" - always feed the examiner with some of his/her own medicine lol gets mark - mark - mark!!

M [specialist biology tutor]
Last edited by macpatgh-Sheldon; 1 year ago

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