GCSE Geography 9 mark question

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h1miah
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#1
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#1
How many marks would this be out of 9?
choose either an earthquake or a volcanic eruption. Assess the extent to which primary effects are more significant than secondary
effects. (9 marks)
The Haiti earthquake had a magnitude of 7.0. This was very devastating as the energy released from the tension between plate margins caused a massive effect in Port au Prince.
Due to As Haiti being LEDC (the quality of their infrastructure is of low quality and quite cheap thus most likely not being earthquake proof) the effects were greater. Primary effects of the earthquake included 220,000 people killed due to collapsing buildings and bridges and further 300,000 people injured. 1.3 million people were made homeless as 100,000 homes of the buildings were destroyed and further 200,000 homes were damaged and were not possible to live in. in addition 30,000 other buildings and 60% of government buildings were badly damaged and destroyed. This included hospitals therefore treating injured people was difficult. Moreover, the main prisons were destroyed, causing over 4,000 inmates to escape, which caused a massive problem for the law enforcement.
Secondary effects of the earthquake included to 2 million people being left without the necessities like food and water, this is because getting supplies into the Haiti was difficult as the main port was damaged, and the airports were not safe to operate. Also, the poor management of the situation caused delays in people receiving help. In addition, 1 in 5 people lost their job because so many buildings were destroyed, and Haiti’s largest industry of clothing was one of the worst affected. This meant the country economy suffered greatly and taxes paid were reduced leading to the government having less money to invest into rebuilding the country. Moreover, many people had to move into temporary shelters, which meant lots of people were craped leading to poor sanitation and health. Lastly due to the high number of deaths, many bodies were piled onto streets which meant diseases especially cholera became a serious problem, and by November 2010 there were cholera outbreaks.
In conclusion I believe primary effects to a big extent were more significant than secondary effects as most of the damages and death was caused due to the earthquake.
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Ðeggs
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#2
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The physical description of the earthquake is very poor. Magnitude 7.0 on what scale? What type of plate boundary is Haiti located on? What tectonic processes cause subduction and the accumulation and consequent release of pressure and friction that causes an earthquake? The first paragraph explains some basic statistics but does not substantiate or justify any statistic or give any supplementary or further explanation, therefore meaning the paragraph is weak. The descriptions you use are also very basic and generalised: "prisoners escaping causing problems for law enforcement, low quality infrastructure". What do you mean by this? Escaped inmates causing social crime, looting and vandalism? Disruptions to supply lines, unsanitary conditions, lack of locally trained medical professionals causes difficulties for hospitals, but you don't explain any reason why which limits your marks.

However, the second paragraph is much better with stronger and more specific arguments that are not generalised, as well as subsequent explanation and substantiations to the points you make. Such as loss of factories and the garment industry causing increased unemployment, loss of income and economic difficulties for low-income families, causing a reduction in government taxation, reliance on foreign aid and difficulty to reconstruct and redevelop infrastructure. The idea of cholera outbreaks is also reasonable, however you should explain the increasing spread of cholera due to high-density and cramped living conditions in refugee camps and damage to sewage infrastructure and water contamination.

Your conclusion is baseless and doesn't explain anything. What type of damage, infrastructural damage, economic damage, social fracturing and loss of families? Overall I would give this a 4/9. Your first paragraph gives some basic statistics for a mark, but does not further explain or substantiate your evidence meaning 1/4. Your second paragraph is much better as you give further explanation, but you could go into more detail about multiplier effects, meaning 3/4. Finally, your conclusion is very weak and unsubstantiated, I would expect maybe 2-3 sentences and the reiteration of the overall argument. No marks.
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flaurie
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#3
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#3
There’s lots of knowledge but not much analysis (what the facts+figures show and mean)
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h1miah
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#4
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#4
(Original post by laurawatt)
There’s lots of knowledge but not much analysis (what the facts+figures show and mean)
Thank you
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h1miah
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#5
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#5
(Original post by Ðeggs)
The physical description of the earthquake is very poor. Magnitude 7.0 on what scale? What type of plate boundary is Haiti located on? What tectonic processes cause subduction and the accumulation and consequent release of pressure and friction that causes an earthquake? The first paragraph explains some basic statistics but does not substantiate or justify any statistic or give any supplementary or further explanation, therefore meaning the paragraph is weak. The descriptions you use are also very basic and generalised: "prisoners escaping causing problems for law enforcement, low quality infrastructure". What do you mean by this? Escaped inmates causing social crime, looting and vandalism? Disruptions to supply lines, unsanitary conditions, lack of locally trained medical professionals causes difficulties for hospitals, but you don't explain any reason why which limits your marks.

However, the second paragraph is much better with stronger and more specific arguments that are not generalised, as well as subsequent explanation and substantiations to the points you make. Such as loss of factories and the garment industry causing increased unemployment, loss of income and economic difficulties for low-income families, causing a reduction in government taxation, reliance on foreign aid and difficulty to reconstruct and redevelop infrastructure. The idea of cholera outbreaks is also reasonable, however you should explain the increasing spread of cholera due to high-density and cramped living conditions in refugee camps and damage to sewage infrastructure and water contamination.

Your conclusion is baseless and doesn't explain anything. What type of damage, infrastructural damage, economic damage, social fracturing and loss of families? Overall I would give this a 4/9. Your first paragraph gives some basic statistics for a mark, but does not further explain or substantiate your evidence meaning 1/4. Your second paragraph is much better as you give further explanation, but you could go into more detail about multiplier effects, meaning 3/4. Finally, your conclusion is very weak and unsubstantiated, I would expect maybe 2-3 sentences and the reiteration of the overall argument. No marks.
Thank you for the feedback
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h1miah
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#6
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#6
(Original post by Ðeggs)
The physical description of the earthquake is very poor. Magnitude 7.0 on what scale? What type of plate boundary is Haiti located on? What tectonic processes cause subduction and the accumulation and consequent release of pressure and friction that causes an earthquake? The first paragraph explains some basic statistics but does not substantiate or justify any statistic or give any supplementary or further explanation, therefore meaning the paragraph is weak. The descriptions you use are also very basic and generalised: "prisoners escaping causing problems for law enforcement, low quality infrastructure". What do you mean by this? Escaped inmates causing social crime, looting and vandalism? Disruptions to supply lines, unsanitary conditions, lack of locally trained medical professionals causes difficulties for hospitals, but you don't explain any reason why which limits your marks.

However, the second paragraph is much better with stronger and more specific arguments that are not generalised, as well as subsequent explanation and substantiations to the points you make. Such as loss of factories and the garment industry causing increased unemployment, loss of income and economic difficulties for low-income families, causing a reduction in government taxation, reliance on foreign aid and difficulty to reconstruct and redevelop infrastructure. The idea of cholera outbreaks is also reasonable, however you should explain the increasing spread of cholera due to high-density and cramped living conditions in refugee camps and damage to sewage infrastructure and water contamination.

Your conclusion is baseless and doesn't explain anything. What type of damage, infrastructural damage, economic damage, social fracturing and loss of families? Overall I would give this a 4/9. Your first paragraph gives some basic statistics for a mark, but does not further explain or substantiate your evidence meaning 1/4. Your second paragraph is much better as you give further explanation, but you could go into more detail about multiplier effects, meaning 3/4. Finally, your conclusion is very weak and unsubstantiated, I would expect maybe 2-3 sentences and the reiteration of the overall argument. No marks.
choose either an earthquake or a volcanic eruption. Assess the extent to which primary effects are more significant than secondary effects. (9 marks)

The Haiti earthquake had a magnitude of 7.0 on Richter magnitude scale. The earthquake occurred on a destructive plate margin between the Caribbean and North American plates. This was very devastating as the energy released from the tension between plate margins caused a massive effect in Port au Prince.

Due to As Haiti being LEDC (low quality infrastructure most likely not being earthquake proof) the effects were greater. About 220,000 people killed due to collapsing buildings and bridges and further 300,000 people injured. The main port was badly damaged along with the many roads blocked by fallen debris which disrupted transport of supplies. Eight hospitals and health centres collapsed or were badly damaged. Also lack of locally trained medical professionals caused difficulties in hospitals. Furthermore, the main prison was damaged causing 4000 inmates to escape and led to increased number of social crimes, looting and vandalism.

Secondary effects of the earthquake included to 2 million people being left without the necessities like food and water, this is because getting supplies into the Haiti was difficult as the main port was damaged, and the airports were not safe to operate. Also, the poor management of the situation caused delays in people receiving help. In addition, 1 in 5 people lost their job because frequent power blackouts due to broken gas pipe s and damaged electricity cable meant that businesses were forced to shut, and Haiti’s largest industry of clothing was one of the worst affected. This meant the country economy suffered greatly and taxes paid were reduced leading to the government having less money to invest into rebuilding the country. Therefore the government relied on foreign aid resulting in difficulty to reconstruct and rebuild the infrastructure. Lastly November 2010 there were cholera outbreaks due to damage to sewage infrastructure and contamination of water supply. Cholera spread rapidly due to high density and cramped living conditions with poor sanitation.

In conclusion I think secondary effects were much more significant as as it resulted in economic damage and social fracturing. Five years after the earthquake many people are still suffering. Even though many people died directly as a result of the earthquake the fact that people are still suffering and dying after a long time, suggest secondary effects were more significant.
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Ðeggs
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#7
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#7
(Original post by h1miah)
choose either an earthquake or a volcanic eruption. Assess the extent to which primary effects are more significant than secondary effects. (9 marks)

The Haiti earthquake had a magnitude of 7.0 on Richter magnitude scale. The earthquake occurred on a destructive plate margin between the Caribbean and North American plates. This was very devastating as the energy released from the tension between plate margins caused a massive effect in Port au Prince.

Due to As Haiti being LEDC (low quality infrastructure most likely not being earthquake proof) the effects were greater. About 220,000 people killed due to collapsing buildings and bridges and further 300,000 people injured. The main port was badly damaged along with the many roads blocked by fallen debris which disrupted transport of supplies. Eight hospitals and health centres collapsed or were badly damaged. Also lack of locally trained medical professionals caused difficulties in hospitals. Furthermore, the main prison was damaged causing 4000 inmates to escape and led to increased number of social crimes, looting and vandalism.

Secondary effects of the earthquake included to 2 million people being left without the necessities like food and water, this is because getting supplies into the Haiti was difficult as the main port was damaged, and the airports were not safe to operate. Also, the poor management of the situation caused delays in people receiving help. In addition, 1 in 5 people lost their job because frequent power blackouts due to broken gas pipe s and damaged electricity cable meant that businesses were forced to shut, and Haiti’s largest industry of clothing was one of the worst affected. This meant the country economy suffered greatly and taxes paid were reduced leading to the government having less money to invest into rebuilding the country. Therefore the government relied on foreign aid resulting in difficulty to reconstruct and rebuild the infrastructure. Lastly November 2010 there were cholera outbreaks due to damage to sewage infrastructure and contamination of water supply. Cholera spread rapidly due to high density and cramped living conditions with poor sanitation.

In conclusion I think secondary effects were much more significant as as it resulted in economic damage and social fracturing. Five years after the earthquake many people are still suffering. Even though many people died directly as a result of the earthquake the fact that people are still suffering and dying after a long time, suggest secondary effects were more significant.
Much much better, definitely 9/9. Only thing of concern to me is your punctuation and sentence structure could be improved a little bit but I think it’s more due to typing your answer online. Well done
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h1miah
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#8
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#8
(Original post by Ðeggs)
Much much better, definitely 9/9. Only thing of concern to me is your punctuation and sentence structure could be improved a little bit but I think it’s more due to typing your answer online. Well done
How many marks would this be?


To what extent has urban change created environmental challenges in a UK city you have studied. (9)

Urban change has resulted in environmental challenges in London. London has experienced a rapid population increase in the last 35 years, with the population increasing from 6.8 million in 1985 to 9.3 million in 2020. One environmental challenge caused by London’s growth is that the demand for water is rising in the Thames Region due to people in London becoming richer and water usage increasing. This means that more water will have to be transferred to south of England from other parts of the UK. In addition, due to increase water usage more wastewater is produced. This has led to an increase in pressure on London’s old Victorian sewage system is not able to cope and as a result roughly 39 million tonnes of sewage are dumped into the river Thames each year. Water was polluted which meant that habitats for wildlife were threatened. However, to solve this issue London is building a new £4 billion super sewer and new treatment works to reduce water pollution in river Thames.

London is an HIC and many people which live there can afford their own private form of transport. As population grows and as London sprawls into the surroundings green areas, there is a growing number of commuters which is resulting in higher levels of pollution and congestion. This is leading to poorer air quality as London has high levels of nitrogen dioxide which can damage people’s lung and is linked to diseases such as asthma and cancer.

In conclusion urban change has led to many challenges in London in terms of environment, which are beginning to be addressed. However urban changes have also led to new opportunities. For example, urban greening has led to the regeneration of derelict and abandoned spaces in north east London and in the docklands. As London grows economically more brownfield sites are being built on and environment is improved, therefore the challenge is reduced.
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Ðeggs
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#9
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#9
(Original post by h1miah)
How many marks would this be?


To what extent has urban change created environmental challenges in a UK city you have studied. (9)

Urban change has resulted in environmental challenges in London. London has experienced a rapid population increase in the last 35 years, with the population increasing from 6.8 million in 1985 to 9.3 million in 2020. One environmental challenge caused by London’s growth is that the demand for water is rising in the Thames Region due to people in London becoming richer and water usage increasing. This means that more water will have to be transferred to south of England from other parts of the UK. In addition, due to increase water usage more wastewater is produced. This has led to an increase in pressure on London’s old Victorian sewage system is not able to cope and as a result roughly 39 million tonnes of sewage are dumped into the river Thames each year. Water was polluted which meant that habitats for wildlife were threatened. However, to solve this issue London is building a new £4 billion super sewer and new treatment works to reduce water pollution in river Thames.

London is an HIC and many people which live there can afford their own private form of transport. As population grows and as London sprawls into the surroundings green areas, there is a growing number of commuters which is resulting in higher levels of pollution and congestion. This is leading to poorer air quality as London has high levels of nitrogen dioxide which can damage people’s lung and is linked to diseases such as asthma and cancer.

In conclusion urban change has led to many challenges in London in terms of environment, which are beginning to be addressed. However urban changes have also led to new opportunities. For example, urban greening has led to the regeneration of derelict and abandoned spaces in north east London and in the docklands. As London grows economically more brownfield sites are being built on and environment is improved, therefore the challenge is reduced.
Very competent, impressive and well explained answer. I would add what is being done about air pollution in the city centre ie pedestrian zones, congestion charges, promoting electric vehicles etc. Other than that, very good and balanced answer. 9/9 or maybe 8/9.
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h1miah
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#10
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#10
(Original post by Ðeggs)
Very competent, impressive and well explained answer. I would add what is being done about air pollution in the city centre ie pedestrian zones, congestion charges, promoting electric vehicles etc. Other than that, very good and balanced answer. 9/9 or maybe 8/9.

How could I improve the conclusion ?
‘Transnational corporations (TNCs) only bring advantages to the host country.’ Do you agree with this statement? Justify your decision.
Nigeria has 40 TNCs operating within the country and Shell is one of the biggest ones. Shell operates in Nigeria extracting oil, particularly in Niger Delta where there are vast amounts of oil.

Shell employs around 65,000 workers directly and created 250,000 more jobs in related industries.as a result this caused a multiplier effect as workers have higher disposable incomes to spend on other local shops and services. In addition, workers pay taxes, which the government can invest in other areas such as education, which helps promote economic development as literacy score rise and more educated people would lead to more people being qualified for better paid work. Moreover, Shell paid £20 billion in corporation tax in 2013 which contributes to the multiplier effect in Nigeria. Furthermore 91% of Shell’s contracts go to Nigerian companies, as a result wealth is spread across different sectors, and also contributes to reducing the development gap.

On the other hand, shell brought many environmental issues to Nigeria, caused by oil spills which damaged the soil and polluted the water in the Niger delta. Oil spills have ruined many fishing places that many Nigerian relied on, and pollution of fish population have caused problems with sickness and death for local people. In addition, many gangs have stolen oil for themselves, which does not benefit normal Nigerians. Oil theft and sabotage are big problems, reducing production levels and is costing billions of dollars.

In conclusion I do not agree with the statement as TNCs bring both advantages and disadvantages to a host country.
Last edited by h1miah; 1 year ago
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