username5693242
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explain how the specific immune response brings about the end of most symptoms by day 14
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HarisMalik98
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Symptoms of an infection can be caused directly by the pathogen itself (cell destruction, toxins etc) or via immune-mediated syndromes due to the immune system clearing the pathogen (immunopathology) - ranges from local tissue-destruction at the site of infections to systemic inflammatory responses (Fever), degranulation releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokine storms and septic shock (rare) etc. Either way, the symptoms are reduced (in most cases) by removal of the pathogen (or toxin). The adaptive immune system utilises two complementary systems to remove pathogens: Cell-Mediated (T-Cell Dependant) and Humoral (Antibody dependant). I would discuss these two aspects within the detail you think is necessary (i.e. check how many marks its worth and write accordingly).

Remember the adaptive immune response is delayed in comparison to the innate immune responses.
Last edited by HarisMalik98; 2 months ago
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Jpw1097
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(Original post by radon2)
explain how the specific immune response brings about the end of most symptoms by day 14
The innate immune system is responsible for the initial phase of the response to infection. Cells of the innate immune system including macrophages and dendritic cells phagocytose pathogens and present part of their antigens on their cell surface (hence why they are called antigen presenting cells). They present these antigens to B and T lymphocytes. When a B cell with the complementary B cell receptor, or T cell with the complementary T cell receptor encounters this antigen, it becomes activated (clonal selection) and proliferates (clonal expansion). This process of the right B/T cell finding an antigen presenting cell presenting the “correct” antigen, and the time it takes for the B/T cell to proliferate and reach numbers capable of dealing with the infection takes several days.
The B/T cells proliferate and some of them differentiate into memory cells (memory B and memory T cells) while others differentiate into effector cells (effector T cells, and plasma cells). Plasma cells secrete antibodies which recognise the pathogen. These antibodies can neutralise the pathogen, as well as make it easier for phagocytes to eat them up (opsonisation), in addition to activating the complement system. Cytotoxic T cells can kill pathogen infected cells while helper T cells secrete cytokines which recruits many other immune cells to the area, such as phagocytes.
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