bananasarelife
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'The greatest challenges within the global migration system are faced by LIDCs.’ Discuss. [16 marks]

I am finding this question difficult to approach. I do OCR Geography and would appreciate any help on it!

The topic is from global migration.

ellenarcher - hey do you have any ideas for this
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archere
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(Original post by bananasarelife)
'The greatest challenges within the global migration system are faced by LIDCs.’ Discuss. [16 marks]

I am finding this question difficult to approach. I do OCR Geography and would appreciate any help on it!

The topic is from global migration.

ellenarcher - hey do you have any ideas for this
Soooo this question can be broken into two parts. 1. What are the challenges within the global migration system? 2. Do LIDCs face disproportionate challenges in comparison to MICs/HICs?

Firstly, I would establish the challenges within the global migration system. This is essentially asking for barriers to migration.
Physical Barriers: Mountain ranges, crossing oceans, deserts e.g the hot Arizona desert prevents many Mexicans from immigrating to the US

Economic Barriers: Cost of ‘closing up’ at the origin country, cost of ‘opening up’ at the destination country, cost of the journey (often long distances which are incredibly expensive), cost of visiting family/friends at home once individuals have migrated, cost of visas

Political Barriers: Strict immigration laws, destination country might require a visa, some countries require a certain level of English proficiency to obtain a work visa, some countries have previously banned certain immigrants/refugees, asylum seeker status is often difficult to obtain

Cultural/Social Barriers: Migrants/refugees might not speak the language of the destination country, different religion to the destination country, cultural ‘shock’

Secondly, once barriers to migration have been established I would assess whether these barriers are the greatest challenge to LIDCs. Show critical analysis and show off your case study knowledge....

Economic barriers are a greater challenge to LIDCs because people in HIC/MICs are often more affluent and can more easily overcome the costs of migration. Link back to the economic barriers and why people in HICs can more easily over come these. For example....people in HICs can often afford a plane ticket whereas war-stricken/poverty-stricken LIDCs mean refugees are forced to rely on dangerous/illegal people smuggling services. Also, people in HICs can more easily secure work if they have appropriate qualifications and therefore overcome the cost of closing/opening up.

Social/cultural/political barriers are often the same for both HICs and LIDCs. However, most migrants from LIDCs are moving to MIC/HICs so the economic/social barriers may be more difficult for them to overcome. Migrants from HICs commonly move to other HICs (very rarely do you see HIC to LIDC migration) which is much easier because they are already of the same status. You could argue that people from HICs will likely have more money and thus, will have greater access to knowledge of the destination country and can prepare for cultural ‘shock’. People from LIDCs might find it difficult to obtain work visas in comparison to people from HICs because for example, they might have fewer qualifications than their HIC counterpart migrant.

Think about why people in LIDCs are migrating - Are they migrating voluntarily or is it forced? Yes, some LIDC migrants are voluntary but often they are forced to migrate due to war/conflict. In comparison to HIC migrants who are often migrating out of choice and have opportunity to plan how they are going to overcome the challenges they are faced with.
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bananasarelife
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(Original post by ellenarcher)
Soooo this question can be broken into two parts. 1. What are the challenges within the global migration system? 2. Do LIDCs face disproportionate challenges in comparison to MICs/HICs?

Firstly, I would establish the challenges within the global migration system. This is essentially asking for barriers to migration.
Physical Barriers: Mountain ranges, crossing oceans, deserts e.g the hot Arizona desert prevents many Mexicans from immigrating to the US

Economic Barriers: Cost of ‘closing up’ at the origin country, cost of ‘opening up’ at the destination country, cost of the journey (often long distances which are incredibly expensive), cost of visiting family/friends at home once individuals have migrated, cost of visas

Political Barriers: Strict immigration laws, destination country might require a visa, some countries require a certain level of English proficiency to obtain a work visa, some countries have previously banned certain immigrants/refugees, asylum seeker status is often difficult to obtain

Cultural/Social Barriers: Migrants/refugees might not speak the language of the destination country, different religion to the destination country, cultural ‘shock’

Secondly, once barriers to migration have been established I would assess whether these barriers are the greatest challenge to LIDCs. Show critical analysis and show off your case study knowledge....

Economic barriers are a greater challenge to LIDCs because people in HIC/MICs are often more affluent and can more easily overcome the costs of migration. Link back to the economic barriers and why people in HICs can more easily over come these. For example....people in HICs can often afford a plane ticket whereas war-stricken/poverty-stricken LIDCs mean refugees are forced to rely on dangerous/illegal people smuggling services. Also, people in HICs can more easily secure work if they have appropriate qualifications and therefore overcome the cost of closing/opening up.

Social/cultural/political barriers are often the same for both HICs and LIDCs. However, most migrants from LIDCs are moving to MIC/HICs so the economic/social barriers may be more difficult for them to overcome. Migrants from HICs commonly move to other HICs (very rarely do you see HIC to LIDC migration) which is much easier because they are already of the same status. You could argue that people from HICs will likely have more money and thus, will have greater access to knowledge of the destination country and can prepare for cultural ‘shock’. People from LIDCs might find it difficult to obtain work visas in comparison to people from HICs because for example, they might have fewer qualifications than their HIC counterpart migrant.

Think about why people in LIDCs are migrating - Are they migrating voluntarily or is it forced? Yes, some LIDC migrants are voluntary but often they are forced to migrate due to war/conflict. In comparison to HIC migrants who are often migrating out of choice and have opportunity to plan how they are going to overcome the challenges they are faced with.
thank you SO MUCH. if you're sick of me pls tell me because i may ask another question.

do you do geography a level because your responses are so detailed and carefully planned
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archere
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(Original post by bananasarelife)
thank you SO MUCH. if you're sick of me pls tell me because i may ask another question.

do you do geography a level because your responses are so detailed and carefully planned
Ofc!! Ask away, I am happy to help...I sat A level geog in 2019 and I went on to study Geography at university!
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bananasarelife
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(Original post by ellenarcher)
Ofc!! Ask away, I am happy to help...I sat A level geog in 2019 and I went on to study Geography at university!
aww that's cool, that's my dream plan! How's uni going for you- did you go physical or human?

anddd this is another 16 marker i'm having difficulty with:

‘The impact of structural economic change on people and place is mainly socio-economic.’
Evaluate this statement in the context of one country or region.

(It's a 33 marker and goes under the Changing Places, Making Spaces topic. The teacher also suggested using Birmingham as the case study)

I'd appreciate your help
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archere
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(Original post by bananasarelife)
aww that's cool, that's my dream plan! How's uni going for you- did you go physical or human?

anddd this is another 16 marker i'm having difficulty with:

‘The impact of structural economic change on people and place is mainly socio-economic.’
Evaluate this statement in the context of one country or region.

(It's a 33 marker and goes under the Changing Places, Making Spaces topic. The teacher also suggested using Birmingham as the case study)

I'd appreciate your help
I'm not sure I can help as much on this topic...the closest my A level came to this topic was 'Economic Transition'. Nonetheless, I would roughly use this structure...

Introduction
- Introduce your case study and provide some contextual information on it (e.g. Birmingham)
- Define the process/processes involved in structural economic change

Paragraph 1 - Yes, structural economic change mainly has socio-economic impacts
- Assess how structural economic change has socio-economic impacts on PEOPLE
- Give examples of impacts on people in the context of your case study
- Link back to the question

Paragraph 2 - Yes, structural economic change mainly has socio-economic impacts
- Assess how structural economic change has socio-economic impacts on PLACE
- Give examples of impacts on place in the context of your case study
- Link back to the question

Paragraph 3 - No, structural economic change does not have mainly socio-economic impacts
- Assess how structural economic change has impacts (other than socio-economic) on PEOPLE
- How does structural economic change impact the political scene? What are the political impacts on people?
- Use your case study as evidence!
- Link back to the question

Paragraph 4 - No, structural economic change does not have mainly socio-economic impacts
- Assess how structural economic change has impacts (other than socio-economic) on PLACE
- How does structural economic change impact the environment? What impacts does this cause?
- Evidence from case study!
- Link back to the question

Conclusion
- Tie up everything you have written about and come to a judgement
- Your judgement should answer the question...use the words in the question 'Therefore, in the context of...(case study e.g. Birmingham)...the impact of structural economic change on people and place is/is not mainly socio-economic because....'
- You could show detailed evaluation by addressing the impact of structural economic change on PEOPLE and PLACE independent of eachother
- 'Therefore, in the context of Birmingham, the impact of structural economic change on people is mainly socio-economic because...... . However, the impact on place is mainly environmental because....'

Further advice...
- Remember to constantly refer back to your chosen case study...this question relies on detailed knowledge of one case study, show off this knowledge!
- Impacts can be both positive and negative so feel free to discuss both
- Key words! e.g. Economic convergence/divergence, regional disparities, spread and backwash effects, core-periphery, primary/secondary/tertiary/quaternary sectors
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Shikalu
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(Original post by ellenarcher)
Soooo this question can be broken into two parts. 1. What are the challenges within the global migration system? 2. Do LIDCs face disproportionate challenges in comparison to MICs/HICs?

Firstly, I would establish the challenges within the global migration system. This is essentially asking for barriers to migration.
Physical Barriers: Mountain ranges, crossing oceans, deserts e.g the hot Arizona desert prevents many Mexicans from immigrating to the US

Economic Barriers: Cost of ‘closing up’ at the origin country, cost of ‘opening up’ at the destination country, cost of the journey (often long distances which are incredibly expensive), cost of visiting family/friends at home once individuals have migrated, cost of visas

Political Barriers: Strict immigration laws, destination country might require a visa, some countries require a certain level of English proficiency to obtain a work visa, some countries have previously banned certain immigrants/refugees, asylum seeker status is often difficult to obtain

Cultural/Social Barriers: Migrants/refugees might not speak the language of the destination country, different religion to the destination country, cultural ‘shock’

Secondly, once barriers to migration have been established I would assess whether these barriers are the greatest challenge to LIDCs. Show critical analysis and show off your case study knowledge....

Economic barriers are a greater challenge to LIDCs because people in HIC/MICs are often more affluent and can more easily overcome the costs of migration. Link back to the economic barriers and why people in HICs can more easily over come these. For example....people in HICs can often afford a plane ticket whereas war-stricken/poverty-stricken LIDCs mean refugees are forced to rely on dangerous/illegal people smuggling services. Also, people in HICs can more easily secure work if they have appropriate qualifications and therefore overcome the cost of closing/opening up.

Social/cultural/political barriers are often the same for both HICs and LIDCs. However, most migrants from LIDCs are moving to MIC/HICs so the economic/social barriers may be more difficult for them to overcome. Migrants from HICs commonly move to other HICs (very rarely do you see HIC to LIDC migration) which is much easier because they are already of the same status. You could argue that people from HICs will likely have more money and thus, will have greater access to knowledge of the destination country and can prepare for cultural ‘shock’. People from LIDCs might find it difficult to obtain work visas in comparison to people from HICs because for example, they might have fewer qualifications than their HIC counterpart migrant.

Think about why people in LIDCs are migrating - Are they migrating voluntarily or is it forced? Yes, some LIDC migrants are voluntary but often they are forced to migrate due to war/conflict. In comparison to HIC migrants who are often migrating out of choice and have opportunity to plan how they are going to overcome the challenges they are faced with.
One question I have is are you sure whether the question is asking for problems faced by migrants from LIDCs looking to emigrate rather than problems faced by LIDCs that either have a large influx of immigrants or a 'brain drain' of migrants?? Would appreciate it if you explain what made you interpret the question that way! Thanks
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(Original post by Shikalu)
One question I have is are you sure whether the question is asking for problems faced by migrants from LIDCs looking to emigrate rather than problems faced by LIDCs that either have a large influx of immigrants or a 'brain drain' of migrants?? Would appreciate it if you explain what made you interpret the question that way! Thanks
That would be a completely valid additional point to make! LIDCs are more likely to suffer from brain drain with high rates of emigration. In terms of global migration LIDCs wouldn't have much immigration relative to HICs. LIDCs might have high rates of internal rural-urban migration but this would be more of a national challenge rather than a global one. Obviously just my interpretation of the question and I have not seen the mark scheme so can't be 100% sure on what would secure marks...
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