2nd ionisation energies of period 2

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CalypsoXenoo
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please can someone explain why lithium has the highest 2nd ionisation energy in period 2 please? thanks
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daan.m
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(Original post by CalypsoXenoo)
please can someone explain why lithium has the highest 2nd ionisation energy in period 2 please? thanks
Lithium only has one outer shell electron in the second energy level (as it's group 1); all other period 2 elements have more than one outer shell electron in the second energy level.

Therefore the second ionisation for lithium removes an electron from the first energy level (as the only second energy level electron will have already been removed in the first ionisation), whereas the second ionisation for any other period 2 element will still remove an electron from the second energy level.

As the first energy level is much closer to the nucleus, and there is much less electron shielding, the positive nuclear charge has a greater effect on electrons residing in the first energy level (compared to the second energy level).

Therefore removing electrons from the first energy level (as in the second ionisation of lithium) requires more energy than removing electrons from the second energy level (as in the second ionisation of any other period 2 element)
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CalypsoXenoo
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(Original post by daan.m)
Lithium only has one outer shell electron in the second energy level (as it's group 1); all other period 2 elements have more than one outer shell electron in the second energy level.

Therefore the second ionisation for lithium removes an electron from the first energy level (as the only second energy level electron will have already been removed in the first ionisation), whereas the second ionisation for any other period 2 element will still remove an electron from the second energy level.

As the first energy level is much closer to the nucleus, and there is much less electron shielding, the positive nuclear charge has a greater effect on electrons residing in the first energy level (compared to the second energy level).

Therefore removing electrons from the first energy level (as in the second ionisation of lithium) requires more energy than removing electrons from the second energy level (as in the second ionisation of any other period 2 element)
thanks I got it now
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