organic chemistry

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Fa123123
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can someone explain the difference in bonding orbitals of carbon atoms in butane and butene.
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bxaanca
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(Original post by Fa123123)
can someone explain the difference in bonding orbitals of carbon atoms in butane and butene.
In butane there are only single covalent bonds present between the C-C and the C-H. That is when atomic orbitals overlap in the internuclear axis. (sigma bonding).

In butene, there is a C=C present. this happens when an electron is promoted from the 2s orbital to the 2p orbital so there are 4 unpaired electrons in 2s/p. Three of the electrons in the 2s/p are bonded, leaving one unpaired electron in the 2p orbital of each carbon and the orbitals containing the unpaired electrons in each carbon overlap each other above and below the C=C. This is pi bonding.
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