Help on the cognitive appraochWatch
Arose with the development of computers in the 1950s and 1960s. Compared the mind to a computer (computer analogy) in that it has input, transformation, and output. The transformation includes processes like memory and thinking, so it allows for a degree of free will. Some criticise this because it's machine reductionism; computers don't have emotions and don't get tired so it's not a perfect analogy.
Models such as the multi-store model of memory can be produced because of this approach.
Schema also play a big role. They're sets of beliefs and expectations that affect our perceptions. Examples of this include the rat-man experiment (participants split into groups and were shown either people or animals, then when presented with an ambiguous picture they would see a man or a rat respectively), and skipping over the second "the" if you read a sentence including "the the".
Is this enough?