BrightBlueStar11
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#1
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#1
Is the answer A incorrect because it is the case where "correlation does not necessarily imply causation"?

Scientists at University College London investigating the effects of bedtime routine on child development asked children to complete a number of tests including basic number skills, reading out word cards, and constructing designs from flat or solid shapes. Although the hour
that children went to bed had little or no effect on their performance, having no set bedtime often led to lower scores. The effect was most striking in three-year-olds, where boys and girls scored lower on reading, maths and spatial skills tests than children of the same age who kept to a more rigid schedule.

Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?
A The more fixed the bedtime routine, the better the child’s intellectual development.
B Irregular bedtimes may disrupt cognitive development in young children.
C Parents ought to take more care when thinking about their children’s bedtime.
D Reduced or disrupted sleep, especially if it occurs at key times in development, could have
important impacts on health throughout life.
E Varying a child’s bedtime routine is likely to lead to cognitive disorders.
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englishhopeful98
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#2
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#2
what is the answer?
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HoldThisL
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#3
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#3
A is incorrect, yes, because the researcher hasn't controlled for enough factors to conclude that fixed bedtime = intellectual development ("correlation is not causation")

all we can conclude is that further research into whether fixed bedtime = intellectual development may be warranted, so B

was this an english question?
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black tea
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#4
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#4
probably B
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0ptics
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#5
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#5
B seems to be the most probable answer.
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BrightBlueStar11
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#6
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#6
thanks for your help guys!
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Nobody2u
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#7
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#7
I think the use of "may" in B is what swings it.
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BrightBlueStar11
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#8
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#8
Another help would be appreciated!

So, would the flaw the option C? Because the passage states "she WOULD resign...", but the conclusion states "She WILL not resign"? - is this again the "correlation vs causation" case? Or is there other reasons?

Mrs Jackson said that, if Mrs List were promoted, she would resign and we definitely do
not want to lose Mrs Jackson. However, we are not going to promote Mrs List: we are
going to offer the promotion to Mr Wade. Therefore Mrs Jackson will not resign.

Which of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the argument?
A It implies that Mrs Jackson threatened to resign because she wanted the
promotion herself.
B It does not explain why it is so important to keep Mrs Jackson.
C It overlooks the possibility that Mrs Jackson might resign even if Mrs List is not
promoted.
D It overlooks the possibility that Mrs Jackson would not have resigned even if
Mrs List had been promoted.
E It overlooks the possibility that Mr Wade might not accept the promotion.
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black tea
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#9
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#9
Agree with C
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gjd800
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#10
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#10
It is C.

'If' does not preclude other reasons for Mrs Jackson to resign

To do that, they'd need to use the biconditional 'if and only if'.
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Nobody2u
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#11
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#11
Definitely C
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BrightBlueStar11
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#12
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#12
(Original post by HoldThisL)
A is incorrect, yes, because the researcher hasn't controlled for enough factors to conclude that fixed bedtime = intellectual development ("correlation is not causation")

all we can conclude is that further research into whether fixed bedtime = intellectual development may be warranted, so B

was this an english question?
yh it is, but is from bmat section 1 critical thinking which requires good understanding of english
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BrightBlueStar11
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#13
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#13
are the following questions an example of "overlooking alternative" since the conclusion takes a single potential example and use it for supporting it? instead of taking into account other probabilities?

"The 21st century is witnessing a significant rise in the proportion of people being diagnosed by medical professionals as having a mental illness. For example, at the turn of the century, the number of Canadians being treated for depression increased by over 30% in just one year. A recent study in the US found that nearly twice the number of young people there were diagnosed with a mental disorder in 2018 as compared to 2003. The World Health Organization estimates that by 2028, depression will be the second leading type of disability worldwide. It is clear that aspects of the modern world make it more difficult for people to maintain good mental health.

Which one of the following is the best statement of the flaw in the above argument?

A Changes in health care and a decrease in stigma attached to mental illness may be
responsible for higher diagnosis rates.
B Many people with a mental health diagnosis may be able to function well in society.
C Significant numbers of people may be hesitant to seek help for mental health concerns
from doctors or other medical professionals.
D Some physical and behavioural factors may make mental health diagnoses more difficult.
E In some cultures people may prefer to seek help for mental health concerns from religious leaders as opposed to doctors."

And

"Maths is the most popular subject taken at A Level in the UK. Most of the best-paid jobs are in the technology and finance sectors, which tend to require maths. The majority of students achieving the best grades in maths are boys, which helps to explain the persistence of the gender pay disparity. But what explains the gender disparity in Maths A Level results – genetic inheritance or social conditioning? International studies of achievement in maths show that in some countries girls outperform boys in maths, suggesting that social conditioning is the explanation. From this we can conclude that the better achievement in maths of boys in the UK is caused by low expectations of girls in maths by teachers and parents.

Which one of the following best expresses the flaw in the above argument?

A It assumes that the only factors in social conditioning are the expectations of teachers and
parents.
B It fails to explain why the relative achievement of boys and girls varies country by country.
C It fails to consider the changing picture of achievement by boys and girls over time.
D It ignores the relatively better achievement of girls in some other subjects.
E It confuses the gender pay disparity with achievement disparities."
Last edited by BrightBlueStar11; 1 month ago
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BrightBlueStar11
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#14
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#14
do you guys have any tips for identifying an assumption in the argument? I normally skim through the passage and try to think if there is any missing link - but this is quite difficult. Would you recommend reading the options before it?
Last edited by BrightBlueStar11; 1 month ago
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