r.rosex
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#1
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#1
I will attach a photo of the question. I kinda of understand the question but at the same time I have no idea what is going on. I know it's related to transcription and translation. if someone could explain would be v grateful.
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chris01928
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(Original post by r.rosex)
I will attach a photo of the question. I kinda of understand the question but at the same time I have no idea what is going on. I know it's related to transcription and translation. if someone could explain would be v grateful.
Ok so firstly you know its to do with Transcription and Translation, so tell me about those processes?
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r.rosex
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(Original post by chris01928)
Ok so firstly you know its to do with Transcription and Translation, so tell me about those processes?
So, and sorry if I am completely wrong, I believe that transcription is where the genes (or DNA) has to be transported to the site of protein synthesis but because its to big to leave the nucleus , RNA has to be produced. And to do this RNA polymerase attached to DNA , and breaks the hydrogen bonds between the two strands. Then one of the strands is used as a template to make an mRNA copy. Then RNA nucleotides are alongside the template strand and complimentary base pairing occurs. they then join together to form mRNA and mRNA moves out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore and attaches its self to the ribosome. Whereas, in translation mRNA binds to a subunit of the ribosome and the mRNA is decoded into a sequence of amino acids. do I need to know more than that? How does it link?
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chris01928
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(Original post by r.rosex)
So, and sorry if I am completely wrong, I believe that transcription is where the genes (or DNA) has to be transported to the site of protein synthesis but because its to big to leave the nucleus , RNA has to be produced. And to do this RNA polymerase attached to DNA , and breaks the hydrogen bonds between the two strands. Then one of the strands is used as a template to make an mRNA copy. Then RNA nucleotides are alongside the template strand and complimentary base pairing occurs. they then join together to form mRNA and mRNA moves out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore and attaches its self to the ribosome. Whereas, in translation mRNA binds to a subunit of the ribosome and the mRNA is decoded into a sequence of amino acids. do I need to know more than that? How does it link?
So you are along the right lines. DNA helices breaks the H bonds within a specific region of DNA. Free RNA nucleotides bind to their complementary bases. RNA polymerase catalyses the formation of the bonds between the RNA nucleotide. Ignoring extra detail, we produce mRNA.

So mRNA is involved, so where does this link to HIV and RNA?
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r.rosex
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(Original post by chris01928)
So you are along the right lines. DNA helices breaks the H bonds within a specific region of DNA. Free RNA nucleotides bind to their complementary bases. RNA polymerase catalyses the formation of the bonds between the RNA nucleotide. Ignoring extra detail, we produce mRNA.

So mRNA is involved, so where does this link to HIV and RNA?
I am rlly not sure. I spent ages looking over my notes... its it to do with tRNA?
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chris01928
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(Original post by r.rosex)
I am rlly not sure. I spent ages looking over my notes... its it to do with tRNA?
That's alright.

So RNA is the template chemical involved in the production of proteins. This is a very controlled highly regulated process otherwise we will get non-functional proteins and this can lead to illnesses such as Cystic Fibrosis.

Protein synthesis starts with Translation. DNA can't leave the nucleus as it is too big and also enzymes will break it down. This is where RNA comes in. I believe you are in Year 12 so I won't get into Transcription Factors but you'll get introduced them next year. Firstly DNA Helicase breaks the Hydrogen bonds of a certain region of DNA. Free RNA nucleotides bind to their complementary bases on the template strand. RNA polymerase catalyses the formation of the bonds between the RNA bases (I believe it is a phosphodiester bond). This forms pre-mRNA (in eukaryotes). A spliceosome then loops, hydrolyses and recondenses the pre-mRNA so that the introns are removed. This forms mature-mRNA or just mRNA. This can then leave the nucleus and go to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum for Transcription.

The mRNA threads itself through the ribosome so that the start codon (AUG) is in it. tRNA with Methionine on the amino acid attachment site binds its anticodon loop to the AUG. The ribosome then 'reads' the next codon and another complementary tRNA binds its anticodon loop. Peptidyl Transferase catalyses the formation of the Peptide Bond between the two amino acids and the first tRNA is released. This process repeats until a stop codon is reached. It enters the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum for folding and the Golgi for modification.

So what can the HIV use in this process for its benefit? Well the virus has none of this aforementioned machinery so if it has a way of utilising the hosts', it can use a host cell to produce its own biomolecules, and that's what it does.

HIV binds its receptor (gp120 I believe) to the CD4 receptor on a helper T cell. Reverse Transcriptase converts the Viral RNA (as it is a retrovirus) into Viral DNA. This enters the nucleus and Intergrase integrates the viral DNA into the host DNA. Now through some complicated biomechanics magic which I am not going to even attempt to understand, the host cell produces the viruses proteins which have been put into the hosts' DNA through Transcription and Translation as mentioned above. Eventually the cell becomes so full that is lyses and the viral proteins exoctose using the hosts' cell membrane as its own phospholipid bilayer. This protects it from detection. This process repeats until the Helper T cell number is so low that the person is unfortunately immunocompromised.

I think you need to read up on HIV and Protein Synthesis

As for the mutation question, we have to think about how a protein folds and why. Explain to me what tertiary structure is?
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r.rosex
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(Original post by chris01928)
That's alright.

So RNA is the template chemical involved in the production of proteins. This is a very controlled highly regulated process otherwise we will get non-functional proteins and this can lead to illnesses such as Cystic Fibrosis.

Protein synthesis starts with Translation. DNA can't leave the nucleus as it is too big and also enzymes will break it down. This is where RNA comes in. I believe you are in Year 12 so I won't get into Transcription Factors but you'll get introduced them next year. Firstly DNA Helicase breaks the Hydrogen bonds of a certain region of DNA. Free RNA nucleotides bind to their complementary bases on the template strand. RNA polymerase catalyses the formation of the bonds between the RNA bases (I believe it is a phosphodiester bond). This forms pre-mRNA (in eukaryotes). A spliceosome then loops, hydrolyses and recondenses the pre-mRNA so that the introns are removed. This forms mature-mRNA or just mRNA. This can then leave the nucleus and go to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum for Transcription.

The mRNA threads itself through the ribosome so that the start codon (AUG) is in it. tRNA with Methionine on the amino acid attachment site binds its anticodon loop to the AUG. The ribosome then 'reads' the next codon and another complementary tRNA binds its anticodon loop. Peptidyl Transferase catalyses the formation of the Peptide Bond between the two amino acids and the first tRNA is released. This process repeats until a stop codon is reached. It enters the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum for folding and the Golgi for modification.

So what can the HIV use in this process for its benefit? Well the virus has none of this aforementioned machinery so if it has a way of utilising the hosts', it can use a host cell to produce its own biomolecules, and that's what it does.

HIV binds its receptor (gp120 I believe) to the CD4 receptor on a helper T cell. Reverse Transcriptase converts the Viral RNA (as it is a retrovirus) into Viral DNA. This enters the nucleus and Intergrase integrates the viral DNA into the host DNA. Now through some complicated biomechanics magic which I am not going to even attempt to understand, the host cell produces the viruses proteins which have been put into the hosts' DNA through Transcription and Translation as mentioned above. Eventually the cell becomes so full that is lyses and the viral proteins exoctose using the hosts' cell membrane as its own phospholipid bilayer. This protects it from detection. This process repeats until the Helper T cell number is so low that the person is unfortunately immunocompromised.

I think you need to read up on HIV and Protein Synthesis

As for the mutation question, we have to think about how a protein folds and why. Explain to me what tertiary structure is?
I definitely will have a read up on it!

Tertiary structure is where the coiled or folded chain of amino acids is further coiled or fold and more hydrogen bonds form between different parts of the polypeptide chain. Which will give them their final 3D structure.

I am right in saying that or am I missing anything??
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