Explain how analysing the mRNA of stem cells and differentiated cells enable...

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zarahh09
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Explain how analysing the mRNA of stem cells and differentiated cells enable us to identify the deactivated genes ??

Anyone? I am stuck
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Sorry to hear you are stuck in the mongrove swamps of the Rift Valley Province - dw I was born there so will find a way to rescue you!! If I need to drive to Kenya via Spain, Tunisia, SE to Sudan, then Somalia then N Kenya, then so be it lol [airplanes are out of action r n due to the curse placed by the supreme manager!!]

Keep laughing everyone!

Coming to your Q, in the last several years, we have discovered a massive amount of detail on mRNA function, gene suppression, transcription factors, mRNA degradation, etc.

For A level, it might be wise just to say:-

a) that we now have ways of working out the full base sequences of mRNA [and other nucleic acids oc].
b) the mRNA of stem cells [which can be pluripotent - can develop into various tissue/cell types] there will be greater degree of ability to lead to translation of a large no. of proteins.
c) mRNA of differentiated cells will have shorter mRNAs coding for less proteins e.g. a cell once already "committed" to become an erythrocyte will have mRNA to code for haemoglobin, WHEREAS a cell destined to become a phagocyte will have genetic material top synthesize lysosomal enzymes [e.g. proteases + nucleases] to destroy ingested bacteria.
d) we can now trace the processes in the 1st 2 lines above to distinguish between stem cell mRNA and differentiated cell mRNA.

I am not sure what the latest A level biology specs for the various boards require on this topic, so please check the spec of your board.

Be safe!
M.
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Jpw1097
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(Original post by zarahh09)
Explain how analysing the mRNA of stem cells and differentiated cells enable us to identify the deactivated genes ??

Anyone? I am stuck
The process of quantifying and analysing mRNA (transcriptomics) is quite complicated. However, the basic principle is that genes that are more active have more mRNA transcripts (because genes are transcribed to produce mRNA, which in turn are translated into protein). Genes that are less active will not be transcribed very often, and therefore there will be very few mRNA transcripts that correspond to that particular gene.

Methods for quantifying the entire transcriptome (that is, mRNA levels for all genes) including RNA sequencing or RNA micro-arrays.
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