A Level Biology EssayWatch this thread
▪Iron ions are found mostly in haemoglobin on red blood cells and are used for transporting oxygen around the body each red blood cell contains several hundered thousand haemoglobin proteins.
▪Hydrogen ions determine the pH (power of hydrogen) of everything in the body and therefore functioning of enzymes. A higher pH is more basic and a lower pH is more acidic. The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions, the lower the pH.
▪Phosphate ions form a structural role in DNA, RNA and 'store energy' in ATP which has three phosphate groups attached to the pentose sugar (ribose) which is in turn attached to an adenine nitrogenous base. Phosphate is also found in the polar head of phospholipids which form the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes
▪Sodium ions are important for lots of things such as the co-transport of glucose and amino acids across plasma membranes (phospholipid bilayer) usually from the lumen of the ileum into the epithelial cells. This is called active transport and requires ATP to function.
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