A level chemistry bonding

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Miasmarome
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#1
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#1
In the image below, i understand how to identify hydrogen bonding, but how do i identify dipole forces from the image.
The question is to order these molecules in terms of boiling point and the asnwer needs to be justified with use of intermolecular forces.
please help
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Miasmarome
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#2
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#2
this is the image
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Niches
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#3
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#3
Hydrogen bonding happens between the lone pair on a delta neg N/O/F and delta positive hydrogen (this is the strongest type of intermolecular force) since there is a large difference in electronegativity. Then things like C=O have dipole dipole forces as the electronegativity difference isn't great enough to be H bonding but it is still high. The Van Der Wals Forces (VDWs) are the weakest intermolecular force and happen between all molcues and atoms.

Since H bond>dipole- dipole> VDWs, the alcohol will have the highest boiling pt as it contains H bonding, which needs the most amount of energy to overcome. Then propanal contains dipole dipole and the alkene simply has VDWs. Hope that helps
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Miasmarome
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#4
Report Thread starter 4 months ago
#4
thank youu
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