Help for bio essay: importance of interactions b/t cells and b/t organisms

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A-level AQA Biology synoptic essay title: The importance of interactions between cells and between organisms

For this specific essay title, I'm having a little trouble on what to write and how to write it so that it would link back to how it's important. I saw on a mark scheme that you could write about viruses, but how would you highlight the "importance" of it? I also read the examiner's report on how people were not including the importance of vaccination but I can only understand to a certain degree how it can be used to write about in this essay title- how would it be introduced in the topic of the immune system, and how can it be highlighted in your writing? In addition to that, I do not really understand how energy and ecosystems could be referenced to link back to the essay title? I know I can use other areas in the A-level spec, but I'd like to still know how these topics can be used in reference to this essay title.

Any help and clarification would be very much appreciated, thank you very much!
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Try and think of importance here in very wide range of ways i.e. importance to:-

a] the individual cell e.g. importance of movement of ions between cardiac muscle cells [called a syncytium - Greek syn or sym means together or jointly as in symphony or synergistic] to permit co-ordinated and synchronous contraction to result in an overall simultaneous pumping action of ventricles.

b] tissues e.g. the harmonious functions of alveolar endothelial cells and erythrocytes, as well as the capillary endothelial cells for efficient gas exchange

c] organs e.g. the forces created by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle in the calf that assist venous return to the heart in the leg veins [saphenous vein for those aiming for A*].i.e. importance of the fact that the muscular system aids the vascular system.

d] the whole organism itself e.g. the co-ordinated actions of the oxygen supply mechanisms [heartbeat and lung function] together with e.g. increase in girth of muscle arterioles during physical activity so that more blood and hence O2 + glucose reach the muscles for the fight, flight or fright [the 3rd is my own addition ] reaction. [also mention here the interaction between neurones and myocytes].

e] different organisms of the same species e.g. the reaction between a spermatozoon and an ovum to effect fertilization important for perpetuation of the species.

f] between different species to benefit the whole habitat/environment [chk out the work of Sir David Attenborough and Greta Thunberg [the latter is a mere schoolgirl who has shaken the world - highly impressive!]]

Hope you will now get a brilliant mark [you will need to use several other e.g.-s of your own, too] & be safe!
Last edited by macpatgh-Sheldon; 5 months ago

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