20 marker sociology A level - can anyone give a grade/mark pls?

Watch this thread
ultimatequeen
Badges: 7
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#1
Report Thread starter 3 months ago
#1
Applying material from item A and your knowledge, evaluate the view that ‘education reproduces and legitimates social class inequality.’ (20)

Item A: Some sociologists claim that education reproduces and legitimates social class inequality. They argue that it operates in the interests of the ruling class, preparing working-class pupils for working-class jobs and justifying this outcome as fair.

Functionalists believe the education system is essential for young people to learn the values of a meritocratic society. In comparison, Marxists disagree by arguing that the education system does reproduce inequalities through a ruling class ideology. This essay will argue why education does reproduce and legitimate social class inequalities.

Marxist thinker, Althusser, argues the education system is an ideological state apparatus which maintains the power of the bourgeoise over the proletariat by acting as a form of control. Item A states ‘the education system prepares working-class pupils for working-class jobs and justifying this outcome as fair.’ Althusser would agree with this statement, as he believes the beliefs and values transmitted from generation to generation is a disguise proposed by the ruling class, which ensures working-class pupils accept their subordinate position in society. Therefore, false class consciousness takes place as the working class are not aware of these inequalities, they are faced with through the education system, due to the justification of inequality as natural. This means it persists on to the wider capitalist society where they end up in low paying jobs, which ensures they do not revolt against their higher counterparts. However, this is criticised by postmodernist thinker Pakulski et al. Pakulski et al argued class is not of importance anymore due to the changes in society, and inequalities are defined by other factors. Although this claim of exaggeration may be true to an extent, recent statistics show social class is a significant factor. The state of nation report (UK) in 2018-19, found 52% of disadvantaged pupils leave school without basic qualifications, which means they are in low paid work in contrast to middle class pupils who are 80% more likely to be in a professional job. This key evidence emphasises how the education system does consistently reproduce and justify inequalities for the working class.

On the other hand, Functionalist theorist Parsons sees school as a focal socialising agency, where it introduces universalistic values to pupils in comparison to particularistic values based in the family home. Universalistic values are a shadow of the workplace’s values, where everyone is treated equally. Parsons also states the education system is meritocratic, where everyone is given equal opportunities to succeed through individual effort and ability. This means if an individual fails in contrast to peers, Parsons believes this is due to their own efforts. However, radical feminists would argue the education system is not meritocratic as girls are not given the same opportunities as boys through school, for example by subject choice, which carries on until their careers, where the gender pay gap still exists. Functionalists Davis and Moore also suggest the education system ensures the most talented and qualified individuals can reach the top jobs, by allocating pupils to their future work roles. An example of this is streaming pupils into set ability classes. From a functionalist perspective, this does not reproduce social inequalities as they are inevitable, and only the most talented should be able to have higher positions.

Item A states that ‘the education system operates in the interests of the ruling class.’ This is demonstrated in Marxist theorists Bowles and Gintis study. They conducted a study of 237 students in America alongside other case studies, to assess how schools mirror the workplace. Bowles and Gintis found that students who showed independence and creativity, achieved lower grades than obedient and disciplined students, who achieved higher grades. These findings highlight how the education system creates the complaint; submissive workers needed in a capitalist workforce, as those with higher grades will be in more professional careers. This correspondence principle is transmitted by the hidden curriculum, which is the unintended values and norms students are expected to follow. For instance, when students gain higher grades, they will be seen as deserving of a status by the school rather than those with lower grades. This hierarchy is also shown at work, where managers tend to have more power and status than skilled workers, therefore they are paid more. This highlights further how the education system does operate with a ruling class ideology, as pupils become accustomed to accepting competition and a hierarchy. On the contrary, postmodernists would argue that the Marxist viewpoint is too simplistic. Postmodernists see individuals as no longer constrained by social inequalities due to the increase in individuality, therefore students can make their own choices. For example, Bowles and Gintis assume pupils accept the school’s values indefinitely. Giroux argues Bowles and Gintis ignore anti-school subcultures and pupils who hold counter values to the school’s structure, which means they do not become a ‘passive, obedient’ worker. Interactionist theorists may also see Bowles and Gintis’ study as a ‘class first’ approach, where other factors such as ethnicity and gender are ignored. However, Marxist thinker, Anyon, found in a series of observations that pupils from a low-income family were not treated with respect, and teachers would only make sure they would get the answer right in exams instead of understanding the concept. This is evident of the statement in item A, ‘preparing the working-class pupils for working class jobs.’ Anyon argued this was a form of preparation, as the teacher taught working class pupils the skills needed to be prepared in a capitalist workforce. This supporting research highlights how education does in fact reproduce and justify social class inequalities.

In conclusion, Functionalist’s theorists argue inequalities are natural so it cannot be avoided, whereas Marxist theorists argue inequalities are reinforced by hegemonic control. The arguments put forward, from a Marxist perspective, believe that education does reproduce and justify social class inequalities, although it does carry limitations.
0
reply
cheesetoasties1
Badges: 9
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#2
Report 3 months ago
#2
Hi, I believe that this would be top band (16/17). However, to improve I would bring in other theories (Feminism --> believe that education reproduces inequalities but gender based rather than class) and given that you are meant to be fully evaluating that statement your functionalist paragraph is quite small in comparison to the other two. What is written is great, though
0
reply
ultimatequeen
Badges: 7
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#3
Report Thread starter 3 months ago
#3
(Original post by cheesetoasties1)
Hi, I believe that this would be top band (16/17). However, to improve I would bring in other theories (Feminism --> believe that education reproduces inequalities but gender based rather than class) and given that you are meant to be fully evaluating that statement your functionalist paragraph is quite small in comparison to the other two. What is written is great, though

Thank u,

yeah I thought my functionalist para would be too small, i'll have to edit and add some more AO1 and evaluation.
0
reply
n.2112
Badges: 2
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#4
Report 2 months ago
#4
(Original post by cheesetoasties1)
Hi, I believe that this would be top band (16/17). However, to improve I would bring in other theories (Feminism --> believe that education reproduces inequalities but gender based rather than class) and given that you are meant to be fully evaluating that statement your functionalist paragraph is quite small in comparison to the other two. What is written is great, though
hi, I wrote a 10 marker on childhood families and households, would you mind marking it and telling me what I could include in it to make it better.
0
reply
cheesetoasties1
Badges: 9
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#5
Report 2 months ago
#5
Yep, sure !
0
reply
n.2112
Badges: 2
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#6
Report 2 months ago
#6
Outline and explain two arguments in favour of the view that childhood is socially constructed (10 marks)
One point to how childhood is socially constructed is through how different cultures interpret childhood. For example some cultures believe that children are a burden to others so they would be casted out to fend for themselves. In Uganda this happens to children at the small age of 3. In rural Bolivia children are expected to take responsibility at a early age so that they can provide for both their homes and communities. Less value is places on childrens obedience towards adults in Tikopia western pacific
Another point is through the legal changes in law. Our society (the government) constructed laws to maintain for things such as smoking and sex. This creates an invisible barrier between adults and children. Increasing the compulsory schooling age creating a economic dependency on adults as children would still be in education and wouldn’t have the financial ability to fend for themselves. This then increases the period of their childhood.
0
reply
cheesetoasties1
Badges: 9
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#7
Report 2 months ago
#7
4/10:
- The 4 marks that you have gained are for point + explaining this point (which you do twice --> 4 marks).
- However, you need to give evidence (for the first point --> which sociologist studied this? are there any other supporting studies [Aries's study??] ; for the second point --> can you give either sociologists that have mentioned this as a cause OR actual laws that have changed the position of childhood?)
- You also need to evaluate each point - this can be positive or negative, but negative is easier as it is easier for the examiner to spot - so why this might not be the case e.g examples of childhood in the past that are similar to now for the second point).
Hope this helped, and you're well on your way
1
reply
n.2112
Badges: 2
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#8
Report 2 months ago
#8
Okay thank you, I’ll have a re write and let you know
0
reply
n.2112
Badges: 2
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#9
Report 2 months ago
#9
(Original post by cheesetoasties1)
4/10:
- The 4 marks that you have gained are for point + explaining this point (which you do twice --> 4 marks).
- However, you need to give evidence (for the first point --> which sociologist studied this? are there any other supporting studies [Aries's study??] ; for the second point --> can you give either sociologists that have mentioned this as a cause OR actual laws that have changed the position of childhood?)
- You also need to evaluate each point - this can be positive or negative, but negative is easier as it is easier for the examiner to spot - so why this might not be the case e.g examples of childhood in the past that are similar to now for the second point).
Hope this helped, and you're well on your way
hiya, this is a different question
Outline an explain two ways in which childhood has not improved for some children. (10 marker)
- one way in which childhood has not improved for some children is through mass media. Postman suggeststed that childhood is shortening, this is through the idea that children are losing their innocence through mass media. For example children are having underage sex and being exposed to violent media, as children can now access the same information as adults through the click of a button, which is the cause of damage done to children's physical, emotional an intellectual development as implied through Palmers talk on 'toxic childhood'.

Another wat is through cross cultural differences in childhood. Some cultures such as Northern Uganda believe that children are burdens and are a hazard to society so they get casted out to fend for themselves at the small age of 3. This then results in children becoming soldiers and prostitutes to supply for themselves, as they aren't economically dependent on their parents . In places like Tikopia of the western pacific they suggest that adults shouldn't expect obedience from their children which demolishes the concept of children being different adults. This could then support Aries's idea of how childhood did not exists.
0
reply
cheesetoasties1
Badges: 9
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#10
Report 2 months ago
#10
(Original post by n.2112)
hiya, this is a different question
Outline an explain two ways in which childhood has not improved for some children. (10 marker)
- one way in which childhood has not improved for some children is through mass media. Postman suggeststed that childhood is shortening, this is through the idea that children are losing their innocence through mass media. For example children are having underage sex and being exposed to violent media, as children can now access the same information as adults through the click of a button, which is the cause of damage done to children's physical, emotional an intellectual development as implied through Palmers talk on 'toxic childhood'.

Another wat is through cross cultural differences in childhood. Some cultures such as Northern Uganda believe that children are burdens and are a hazard to society so they get casted out to fend for themselves at the small age of 3. This then results in children becoming soldiers and prostitutes to supply for themselves, as they aren't economically dependent on their parents . In places like Tikopia of the western pacific they suggest that adults shouldn't expect obedience from their children which demolishes the concept of children being different adults. This could then support Aries's idea of how childhood did not exists.
I would say 5/10:
--> Evaluation still not clear - it is much easier if you make a contradictory point at the end of your paragraph so the examiner can easily spot where you have put evaluation in
--> Expand on points further - your chains of reasoning are not clear, which may make the difference between the examiner awarding you 4/10 and 6/10

I have rewritten the first paragraph in what I would like to hope would be 5/5 for that paragraph:

One way in which childhood has not improved is due to the development of mass media. Postman suggests that the division between adults and children has began to disappear, due to the popularisation of TV. Unlike in the past, where printed word created a division between adults (who can read) and children (who cannot), TV does not require special skills to access it, meaning that information that was previously confined to adults is now accessible by children. This means that children now have access to things such as violent media, knowledge about sex, death etc that can arguably be seen as worsening childhood as the ignorance and innocence that is crucial to the idea of childhood has been destroyed. However, Opie argues the opposite. Based on research into child-specific games, rhymes and songs, she concludes that there is strong evidence that there is still a continued children's culture that is separate to adults - meaning that they do not have access to this information that would not improve their childhood. This said, it must be considered that although there may be a separate children's culture, this does not deny the fact that children now have access to potentially damaging information, thus indicating that childhood has not improved as their innocence is not fostered.
1
reply
n.2112
Badges: 2
Rep:
? You'll earn badges for being active around the site. Rep gems come when your posts are rated by other community members.
#11
Report 2 months ago
#11
Heyy, i re wrote the first 10 marker you marked and gave me notes on. Can you have a look at this one? Thank you so much!
Outline and explain two arguments in favour that childhood is socially constructed
*
One way in which supports the claim of childhood being socially constructed is through the idea that society thinks* there should be separation between childhood and adulthood. This is done through laws that have been created preventing children from doing certain things which adults are allowed to do, keeping children separate from adults. For example, minimum age laws being placed on certain things such as sex and smoking.* Due to the Protection child act in 1889* the compulsory age to stay in education increased to 18. This causes children to be economically dependent on their parents increasing their childhood as they aren't able to be independent as they are getting educated in school . Aries suggests that the 'idea of childhood' is related to creating a specific nature of childhood, which allows the division between children and adults to take place. On the other hand Postman suggests that children are losing their innocence due to mass media. As they are able to access the same information as adults in the click of a button.
*
Another way is through how other cultures and counties childhoods varies to others. Some cultures believe that children are a burden and a hazard to society so they are casted out to fend for themselves. This results in children becoming soldiers would signifies that they would be taking on responsibilities that would typically be assigned for adults in 'western' societies. In countries such as Ethiopia and India some teenage girls are forced to marry, this would mostly be the case with working class families as they would be in poverty or living on a low salary. The girls would take on the role of the wife or mother at such a young age. Aries believed that childhood did not exist and that children were viewed as 'tiny adults' however her view could be criticised as their childhood did exists they just had a different notion of childhood compared to ours.
0
reply
X

Quick Reply

Attached files
Write a reply...
Reply
new posts
Back
to top
Latest

Were exams easier or harder than you expected?

Easier (56)
26.67%
As I expected (67)
31.9%
Harder (79)
37.62%
Something else (tell us in the thread) (8)
3.81%

Watched Threads

View All