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The heart and blood vessels-Gcse biology AQA (combined)

What do you exactly need to know regarding the heart for the exam
There's so much detail everywhere it's mind boggling!
(edited 1 year ago)
Original post by Sb2005
What do you exactly need to know regarding the heart and double circulation for the exam
There's so much detail everywhere it's mind boggling!

Idk what it's like for combined but I guess some of it would be similar to separate so here's the stuff I've been learning:
- Path blood takes through heart
- Why humans have a double circulatory system
- Pacemakers/artificial pacemakers
- Mechanical and biological valves
- Coronary heart disease (just what it is and treatments)
- Blood vessels
- Components of the blood
Probably best to check the advanced info tho. If you've got any questions I can help you out.
Original post by BlueyRaspberry
Idk what it's like for combined but I guess some of it would be similar to separate so here's the stuff I've been learning:
- Path blood takes through heart
- Why humans have a double circulatory system
- Pacemakers/artificial pacemakers
- Mechanical and biological valves
- Coronary heart disease (just what it is and treatments)
- Blood vessels
- Components of the blood
Probably best to check the advanced info tho. If you've got any questions I can help you out.

Explanations if anyone needs it:
Path the blood takes through the heart - deoxygenated blood enters the right atria via the vena cava, it then passes through into the right ventricle where it goes to the lungs via the pulmonary artery, in the lungs oxygen diffuses into the blood stream and carbon dioxide diffuses out, the oxygenated blood then travels via the pulmonary vein to the left atria, then into the left ventricle, where it flows out to the rest of the body via the aorta.

Pacemakers/artificial pace makers - the heart has a group of cells in the right atria called pace maker cells which generate small electrical impulses to stimulate the heart muscles to contract and beat. Artificial pacemakers are small electrical devices that are put into the heart via surgery that do the same role as the pacemaker cells.

Mechanical and biological valves -
why people need replacements: leaky valve allowing back flow of blood, stiff valves not allowing enough flow of blood
mechanical valves: made of strong materials, patient needs to take blood thinners to prevent blood clotting on it so they may have other health issues such as easy bruising or excessive bleeding when cut
biological valves: usually taken from an animal e.g a pig so has religious and ethical concerns, they may wear out

Coronary heart disease -
what it is: caused by a build up of fatty materials in the coronary arteries which lead to restricted flow of blood to the heart muscles
treatments: statins which lower the amount of bad cholesterol in the blood stream to prevent build up of fatty materials and also increase levels of good cholesterol, eating a healthier diet e.g low in fats

Blood vessels -
arteries: take oxygenated blood from the heart around the body, have thick walls with elastic fibres and a smaller lumen than veins to help them deal with the high pressure that blood is pumped out of the heart at
veins: thinner walls than arteries as the blood is at a lower pressure, has a wide lumen
capillaries: very thin (one cell thick) to allow efficient exchange of substances e.g oxygen and carbon dioxide

components of the blood -
plasma: a straw coloured liquid that holds the other components and has dissolved substances such as urea, digested food molecules, urea, and carbon dioxide in it.
red blood cells: large surface area and no nucleus to maximise space for haemoglobin(red pigment), haemoglobin reacts with oxygen to form oxygen oxyhemoglobin and transports it around the body
white blood cells: part of the immune system, produce antibodies and antigens, do phagocytosis
platelets: small fragments of broken cells that help clot blood at the site of an injury
Explanations if anyone needs it:
Path the blood takes through the heart - deoxygenated blood enters the right atria via the vena cava, it then passes through into the right ventricle where it goes to the lungs via the pulmonary artery, in the lungs oxygen diffuses into the blood stream and carbon dioxide diffuses out, the oxygenated blood then travels via the pulmonary vein to the left atria, then into the left ventricle, where it flows out to the rest of the body via the aorta.

Pacemakers/artificial pace makers - the heart has a group of cells in the right atria called pace maker cells which generate small electrical impulses to stimulate the heart muscles to contract and beat. Artificial pacemakers are small electrical devices that are put into the heart via surgery that do the same role as the pacemaker cells.

Mechanical and biological valves -
why people need replacements: leaky valve allowing back flow of blood, stiff valves not allowing enough flow of blood
mechanical valves: made of strong materials, patient needs to take blood thinners to prevent blood clotting on it so they may have other health issues such as easy bruising or excessive bleeding when cut
biological valves: usually taken from an animal e.g a pig so has religious and ethical concerns, they may wear out

Coronary heart disease -
what it is: caused by a build up of fatty materials in the coronary arteries which lead to restricted flow of blood to the heart muscles
treatments: statins which lower the amount of bad cholesterol in the blood stream to prevent build up of fatty materials and also increase levels of good cholesterol, eating a healthier diet e.g low in fats

Blood vessels -
arteries: take oxygenated blood from the heart around the body, have thick walls with elastic fibres and a smaller lumen than veins to help them deal with the high pressure that blood is pumped out of the heart at
veins: thinner walls than arteries as the blood is at a lower pressure, has a wide lumen
capillaries: very thin (one cell thick) to allow efficient exchange of substances e.g oxygen and carbon dioxide

components of the blood -
plasma: a straw coloured liquid that holds the other components and has dissolved substances such as urea, digested food molecules, urea, and carbon dioxide in it.
red blood cells: large surface area and no nucleus to maximise space for haemoglobin(red pigment), haemoglobin reacts with oxygen to form oxygen oxyhemoglobin and transports it around the body
white blood cells: part of the immune system, produce antibodies and antigens, do phagocytosis
platelets: small fragments of broken cells that help clot blood at the site of an injury
Reply 4
Original post by paprikacrisps
Explanations if anyone needs it:
Path the blood takes through the heart - deoxygenated blood enters the right atria via the vena cava, it then passes through into the right ventricle where it goes to the lungs via the pulmonary artery, in the lungs oxygen diffuses into the blood stream and carbon dioxide diffuses out, the oxygenated blood then travels via the pulmonary vein to the left atria, then into the left ventricle, where it flows out to the rest of the body via the aorta.

Pacemakers/artificial pace makers - the heart has a group of cells in the right atria called pace maker cells which generate small electrical impulses to stimulate the heart muscles to contract and beat. Artificial pacemakers are small electrical devices that are put into the heart via surgery that do the same role as the pacemaker cells.

Mechanical and biological valves -
why people need replacements: leaky valve allowing back flow of blood, stiff valves not allowing enough flow of blood
mechanical valves: made of strong materials, patient needs to take blood thinners to prevent blood clotting on it so they may have other health issues such as easy bruising or excessive bleeding when cut
biological valves: usually taken from an animal e.g a pig so has religious and ethical concerns, they may wear out

Coronary heart disease -
what it is: caused by a build up of fatty materials in the coronary arteries which lead to restricted flow of blood to the heart muscles
treatments: statins which lower the amount of bad cholesterol in the blood stream to prevent build up of fatty materials and also increase levels of good cholesterol, eating a healthier diet e.g low in fats

Blood vessels -
arteries: take oxygenated blood from the heart around the body, have thick walls with elastic fibres and a smaller lumen than veins to help them deal with the high pressure that blood is pumped out of the heart at
veins: thinner walls than arteries as the blood is at a lower pressure, has a wide lumen
capillaries: very thin (one cell thick) to allow efficient exchange of substances e.g oxygen and carbon dioxide

components of the blood -
plasma: a straw coloured liquid that holds the other components and has dissolved substances such as urea, digested food molecules, urea, and carbon dioxide in it.
red blood cells: large surface area and no nucleus to maximise space for haemoglobin(red pigment), haemoglobin reacts with oxygen to form oxygen oxyhemoglobin and transports it around the body
white blood cells: part of the immune system, produce antibodies and antigens, do phagocytosis
platelets: small fragments of broken cells that help clot blood at the site of an injury

This is very helpful
Thank you sooo much!!
Reply 5
Hi @paprikacrisps
Regarding the 'path the blood takes through the heart', what you've said matches my notes, but in my textbook for 'blood flow through the heart' it says something else
(see attached file)
I'm wondering if you know the reason why like are there two different things or what...
Please could you reply ASAP as my exam is tomorrow x
(edited 1 year ago)
Original post by Sb2005
Hi @paprikacrisps
Regarding the 'path the blood takes through the heart', what you've said matches my notes, but in my textbook for 'blood flow through the heart' it says something else
(see attached file)
I'm wondering if you know the reason why like are there two different things or what...
Please could you reply ASAP as my exam is tomorrow x

Hi, I'm pretty sure they both say the same thing, I just started explaining the cycle at a different stage but it shouldn't matter... since it is a cycle and loops back around. I have my exam tomorrow too! Good Luck
Reply 7
Original post by paprikacrisps
Hi, I'm pretty sure they both say the same thing, I just started explaining the cycle at a different stage but it shouldn't matter... since it is a cycle and loops back around. I have my exam tomorrow too! Good Luck

Thank you for the quick reply ... I think I'll go for your way the textbook is confusing me 🙆
Good luck to you too!!!

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