a level biology (as) ocr a transcription translation

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imonahellevator
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hi, can someone please explain transcription and translation to me?
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ElegantLampshade
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Hey,
I did edexcel biology but Protein synthesis is protein synthesis at the end of the day!

1 - Transcription...

So, a strand of DNA in the nucleus is 'unzipped' by an enzyme (DNA Helicase) to separate the strands. Then free nucleotides - A,U,C,G (imagine like alphabetti spaghetti but with AUCG only) line up with the bases on the separated strand. This only happens on one of the strands called the antisense strand, so that by pairing it makes a copy of the other strand, which is called the sense strand. The bases are connected by another enzyme called RNA polymerase. this is the completed mRNA molecule.

Once this is completed this new strand of free nucleotides leaves the nucleus via a nuclear pore and enters the cytoplasm. It attaches to a ribosome to be translated.

2 - Translation...

After the mRNA attaches to a ribosome, tRNA molecules with complimentary amino acids start binding to the ribosome one at a time. I assume you are familiar with the fact that 3 bases = one codon= one amino acid.
The mRNA moves through the ribosome like a piece of paper in a printer, one codon at a time. The amino acids are also being joined together by peptide bonds to make a chain of amino acids - a polypeptide. This continues until the last codon is read and the amino acid chain is complete.

This was a really brief rundown of protein synthesis, and I think translation is especially hard to describe or understand without seeing or drawing a diagram. I'll have a look to see if I can find any diagrams I did and I'll post them.

Anyway, hope this helps a bit. If there is anything you're not sure about just let me know and I'll see what I can do!
Good luck!
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ElegantLampshade
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Here are a couple of diagrams I did from AS. Hope it helps you visualise it a bit more. Definitely have a look on YouTube for some more explanations - I've just finished my A Levels and I can certainly say that its really useful to know Protein synthesis inside out and instantly recall it - easy marks when you know it!

(ALSO in last post... DNA is not unzipped by DNA helicase, it is RNA Polymerase. Sorry!)
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imonahellevator
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(Original post by ElegantLampshade)
Here are a couple of diagrams I did from AS. Hope it helps you visualise it a bit more. Definitely have a look on YouTube for some more explanations - I've just finished my A Levels and I can certainly say that its really useful to know Protein synthesis inside out and instantly recall it - easy marks when you know it!

(ALSO in last post... DNA is not unzipped by DNA helicase, it is RNA Polymerase. Sorry!)
thank you so much i really appreciate it!!
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