HELP! - Usage on A.D. and B.C.

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Mark Wallace
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CyberCypher wrote:
[q1]> [email protected] (Fester) burbled news:[email protected]:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]>> I saw Thunder9 rant about the following:[/q2]
[q3]>>>[/q3]
[q3]>>> Personally I can't stand full stops and don't know why I did so here. (I'm American)[/q3]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q2]>> Are you just trying to act British, or do people in your area of the US actually refer to periods[/q2]
[q2]>> as full stops? I've never heard an American use that term before.[/q2]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> Americans who often talk to Brits do. Not everyone is provincial.[/q1]

<giggles>

CC used the 'P' word!

--
Mark Wallace
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Raymond S. Wise
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"Tristan" <[email protected]> wrote in message
newsan.2002.06.15.09.30.28.762758.45 [email protected]...

[...]

[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> [1]: As an aside on this, why are CE and BCE any less Christian-centric than AD and BC? Sure, they[/q1]
[q1]> don't mention Christ, but they imply that the common era began two thousand years and two[/q1]
[q1]> ago. I don't know about you, but I don't think I have terribly much in common with the[/q1]
[q1]> ancient Roman Empire or medieval times, or even, really, the 18th century.[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]

The labels "before the Common Era" and "Common Era" emphasize that this counting of years is in
common use, whereas "before Christ" and "Anno Domini" are more explicit references to the Christian
origin of the system. That this era is in common use is evident--both when the term was coined by
Jewish scholars[1] and now. It combined with the Gregorian Calendar make a "metric system" or
"lingua franca" of dating systems, if you will. Jews, Muslims, and Russian Orthodox Christians may
use their own dating systems among themselves, but when--for the purposes of commerce or for other
reasons--they need to communicate with others who use a different system it is the Common
Era/Gregorian Calendar which they are most likely to use.

[q1]> Also, unless I'm wrong, one writes AD 1400 but 1400 BC. Does one, then, right CE 1400 and 1400 BCE[/q1]
[q1]> or just 1400 (B)CE?[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> Tristan.[/q1]

The convention to write AD before the year came about in order to keep the same grammatical relation
to the year number as "Anno Domini." It's "AD 2002," that is "Anno Domini 2002," that is "The Year
of the Lord 2002." However, it has long been the practice to write AD after the word "century," as
in "the fourth century AD," and many people, including me, prefer to write AD after the year, as in
"2002 AD."

The "grammatical" motive does not exist in the case of "Common Era."

Note:

[1]See the entry "Jewish English" in *The Oxford Companion to the English Language* by Tom
McArthur at

http://www.xrefer.com/entry.jsp?xrefid=442577&secid=.-

--
Raymond S. Wise Minneapolis, Minnesota USA

E-mail: mplsray @ yahoo . com
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Meirman
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I see that Raymond said a good part of what I did. I've got to learn to look at other responses to
posts before I start writing. Oh well, I'll post mine without changing it anyhow.

In alt.english.usage on Sat, 15 Jun 2002 11:56:37 GMT Tristan <[email protected]> posted:

[q1]>On Sat, 15 Jun 2002 07:30:12 +1000, Mark Wallace wrote:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]>> Thunder9 wrote:[/q2]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q3]>>> Personally I can't stand full stops and don't know why I did so here. (I'm American)[/q3]
[q3]>>>[/q3]
[q3]>>> So is it ok to say (ie write) the abbreviations in this sentance without full stops (eg "ie"[/q3]
[q3]>>> and "eg)?[/q3]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q2]>> I find that typing "ie" and "eg" without the points prevents my spellchecker from being a pain.[/q2]
[q2]>> That's a good enough reason for me.[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>The rule I learnt about punctuating abbreviations is that if there are two or more capital letters,[/q1]
[q1]>the last letter in the abbreviation is the same as the last letter in the word or it's pronounced[/q1]
[q1]>as a word, then you *don't* use a full stop, otherwise, you put one at the end of each word in the[/q1]
[q1]>abbreviation.[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>Thus:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>laser (not l.a.s.e.r., Light Amplified by Something-or-othER.) Anzac (not A.N.Z.A.C., Australian[/q1]
[q1]>and New Zealand Army Corps) Dr (not Dr., Doctor) St (not St., Street or Saint)[/q1]

These are the only two I use that I use differently. AO is the only one I don't use at all. I wish
more people, even one more , would list in their sig where they are from. (In Agent one can have a
separate sig for each ng.)

The difference in the US is that laser and Anzac (or ANZAC) are acronyms (and presumably designed in
the first place to be pronounceable) and Dr. is an abbbreviation.

[q1]>BC(E) (not B.C.(E.), Before Christ or Before the Common Era)[1] AO (not A.O., Order of Australia)[/q1]
[q1]>i.e. (not ie. or ie)[/q1]
[q1]>e.g. (not eg. or eg)[/q1]

Personally I really don't like the versions in parentheses.

[q1]>This method looks like the nicest trade-off between neatness and clearness to me, but that could[/q1]
[q1]>easily just be because it's what I'm used to.[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>[1]: As an aside on this, why are CE and BCE any less Christian-centric than AD and BC? Sure, they[/q1]
[q1]> don't mention Christ,[/q1]

That's the big difference. IMO, something like entering a house through a door which used to be
marked "Servant's entrance" and is now just marked "back door". (Not the best example because I'm
sure other people entered through the servant's entrance, but I'm trying to say that some would
refuse to identify themselves as servants if they weren't, and I won't identify myself as a subject
of Jesus when I'm not. Using those abbreviations seems to me to do that. It would be sort of like if
some of my neighbors asked me to call another of my neighbors "Your Highness".

Or looking at it another way, it's not a problem to recognize about Jesus that others call him and
think of him as Christ or "Our Lord", but those are not words I could refer to him by. The latter,
and even the former for different reasons, is too close to "You shall not have other gods before me
(in my presence)."

I would call a nun or a monk Sister or Brother, but I wouldn't call a priest Father because I have
and will have only one father. Similarly, I only have one Lord.

[q1]>but they imply that the common era began two thousand years and two ago. I don't know about you,[/q1]
[q1]>but I don't think I have terribly much in common with the ancient Roman Empire or medieval times,[/q1]
[q1]>or even, really, the 18th century.[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>Also, unless I'm wrong, one writes AD 1400 but 1400 BC. Does one, then, right CE 1400 and 1400 BCE[/q1]
[q1]>or just 1400 (B)CE?[/q1]

I'm not sure, but I think the archaeologists put both at the end. AD is the only one that is Latin
and that might make its placement different. I've read a little of those two or three semi-academic
archaology journals, BAR and RBA and I think there is one other, and I don't remember ever noticing
it being first.

I remember one issue of one of them that had a letter to editor complaining that "common" was an
insulting word, and instead of answering the guy and showing all the many uses that aren't insulting
at all**, or arranging to print a response from someone that same issue, they let him stew for a
month or two until the next issue, if they printed a response then. He might not even have occasion
to read the next issue.

**Common law, common sense, common denominator and many more. Even the uses where it appears
insulting, it really just means "frequently seen" and it's the word it is modifying that carries the
insult, as in "common harlot". "Era" doesn't do that. For all I know, that guy is still stewing.

[q1]>Tristan.[/q1]

s/ meirman If you are emailing me please say if you are posting the same response.

Born west of Pittsburgh Pa. 10 years Indianapolis, 7 years Chicago, 6 years Brooklyn NY 12 years
Baltimore 17 years
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Odysseus
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"Raymond S. Wise" wrote:
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> The convention to write AD before the year came about in order to keep the same grammatical[/q1]
[q1]> relation to the year number as "Anno Domini." It's "AD 2002," that is "Anno Domini 2002," that is[/q1]
[q1]> "The Year of the Lord 2002." However, it has long been the practice to write AD after the word[/q1]
[q1]> "century," as in "the fourth century AD," and many people, including me, prefer to write AD after[/q1]
[q1]> the year, as in "2002 AD."[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
I agree that putting "AD" ahead of the year comes from the Latin, but wouldn't "*in* the year of the
Lord" be a better translation? The nominative form is _annus_, not _anno_, isn't it?

--Odysseus
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Robert Banniste
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"Raymond S. Wise" wrote:

[q1]> "Tristan" <[email protected]> wrote in message[/q1]
[q1]> newsan.2002.06.15.09.30.28.762758.45 [email protected]...[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> [...][/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]> > Also, unless I'm wrong, one writes AD 1400 but 1400 BC. Does one, then, right CE 1400 and 1400[/q2]
[q2]> > BCE or just 1400 (B)CE?[/q2]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q2]> > Tristan.[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> The convention to write AD before the year came about in order to keep the same grammatical[/q1]
[q1]> relation to the year number as "Anno Domini." It's "AD 2002," that is "Anno Domini 2002," that is[/q1]
[q1]> "The Year of the Lord 2002." However, it has long been the practice to write AD after the word[/q1]
[q1]> "century," as in "the fourth century AD," and many people, including me, prefer to write AD after[/q1]
[q1]> the year, as in "2002 AD."[/q1]

So do I, but anyway, since AD does not mean 'The Year of the Lord', but 'In the Year...', it
really doesn't make much sense either way: 'In the year of the Lord, 2002' or '2002, in the year
of the Lord'.

--
Rob Bannister
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Odysseus
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meirman wrote:
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> I remember one issue of one of them that had a letter to editor complaining that "common" was an[/q1]
[q1]> insulting word, and instead of answering the guy and showing all the many uses that aren't[/q1]
[q1]> insulting at all**, or arranging to print a response from someone that same issue, they let him[/q1]
[q1]> stew for a month or two until the next issue, if they printed a response then. He might not even[/q1]
[q1]> have occasion to read the next issue.[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
If he thought "common" is insulting, no doubt he'd be appalled at the Latin equivalent of CE, _e.v._
for _era vulgaris_.

--Odysseus
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Raymond S. Wise
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Odysseus <[email protected]> wrote in message news:<[email protected] >...
[q1]> "Raymond S. Wise" wrote:[/q1]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q2]> > The convention to write AD before the year came about in order to keep the same grammatical[/q2]
[q2]> > relation to the year number as "Anno Domini." It's "AD 2002," that is "Anno Domini 2002," that[/q2]
[q2]> > is "The Year of the Lord 2002." However, it has long been the practice to write AD after the[/q2]
[q2]> > word "century," as in "the fourth century AD," and many people, including me, prefer to write AD[/q2]
[q2]> > after the year, as in "2002 AD."[/q2]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q1]> I agree that putting "AD" ahead of the year comes from the Latin, but wouldn't "*in* the year of[/q1]
[q1]> the Lord" be a better translation? The nominative form is _annus_, not _anno_, isn't it?[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]

Yes, you're right.

--
Raymond S. Wise Minneapolis, Minnesota USA

E-mail: mplsray @ yahoo . com
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Michael J Hardy
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meirman ([email protected]) wrote:

[q1]> **Common law, common sense, common denominator and many more. Even the uses where it appears[/q1]
[q1]> insulting, it really just means "frequently seen" and it's the word it is modifying that carries[/q1]
[q1]> the insult, as in "common harlot". "Era" doesn't do that. For all I know, that guy is still[/q1]
[q1]> stewing.[/q1]

In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it
does not mean "frequently seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy
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Ann
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On 16 Jun 2002 21:48:44 GMT, [email protected] (Michael J Hardy) wrote:

[q1]> meirman ([email protected]) wrote:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]>> **Common law, common sense, common denominator and many more. Even the uses where it appears[/q2]
[q2]>> insulting, it really just means "frequently seen" and it's the word it is modifying that carries[/q2]
[q2]>> the insult, as in "common harlot". "Era" doesn't do that. For all I know, that guy is still[/q2]
[q2]>> stewing.[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it[/q1]
[q1]> does not mean "frequently seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy[/q1]

I don't get that. The only way I know that it's used insultingly is in calling someone plain common.
It doesn't then mean 'frequently seen' or 'shared'....

Ann
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Meirman
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In alt.english.usage on 16 Jun 2002 21:48:44 GMT [email protected] (Michael J Hardy) posted:

[q1]> meirman ([email protected]) wrote:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]>> **Common law, common sense, common denominator and many more. Even the uses where it appears[/q2]
[q2]>> insulting, it really just means "frequently seen" and it's the word it is modifying that carries[/q2]
[q2]>> the insult, as in "common harlot". "Era" doesn't do that. For all I know, that guy is still[/q2]
[q2]>> stewing.[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it[/q1]
[q1]> does not mean "frequently seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy[/q1]

Oops. Thanks. You are right. Also tenants in common, common wall, and that's all I can think of now.

s/ meirman If you are emailing me please say if you are posting the same response.

Born west of Pittsburgh Pa. 10 years Indianapolis, 7 years Chicago, 6 years Brooklyn NY 12 years
Baltimore 17 years
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Raymond S. Wise
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"meirman" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:[email protected]...
[q1]> In alt.english.usage on 16 Jun 2002 21:48:44 GMT [email protected] (Michael J Hardy) posted:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]> > meirman ([email protected]) wrote:[/q2]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q2]> >> **Common law, common sense, common denominator and many more. Even the uses where it appears[/q2]
[q2]> >> insulting, it really just means "frequently seen" and it's the word it is modifying that[/q2]
[q2]> >> carries the insult, as in "common harlot". "Era" doesn't do that. For all I know, that guy is[/q2]
[q2]> >> still stewing.[/q2]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q2]> > In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it[/q2]
[q2]> > does not mean "frequently seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> Oops. Thanks. You are right. Also tenants in common, common wall, and that's all I can[/q1]
[q1]> think of now.[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]

Then there is the noun "commons," based upon the idea of a shared resource, as in Boston Commons and
in the economic theory "the tragedy of the commons."

For the latter, see http://dieoff.com/page95.htm .

--
Raymond S. Wise Minneapolis, Minnesota USA

E-mail: mplsray @ yahoo . com
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Lisa Lundgren
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[q1]>On Fri, 14 Jun 2002 23:10:40 +0200, "Mark Wallace" <[email protected]> wrote:[/q1]

[q1]><wanders off, practising> Luvly. Luvly! *Luvly!* *Luv*ly! l*U*vly! Oh, *******s. Pass me a spanner.[/q1]
[q1]>I'll do plumbing, instead.[/q1]

Well, that'll throw a wrench into the gears.

Lisa Lundgren
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Donna Richoux
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Lisa Lundgren <[email protected]> wrote:

[q2]> >On Fri, 14 Jun 2002 23:10:40 +0200, "Mark Wallace" <[email protected]>[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]> ><wanders off, practising> Luvly. Luvly! *Luvly!* *Luv*ly! l*U*vly! Oh, *******s. Pass me a[/q2]
[q2]> >spanner. I'll do plumbing, instead.[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> Well, that'll throw a wrench into the gears.[/q1]

When I visited an American friend in London after she had lived there for five years, I definitely
noticed the way she had picked up a British-sounding "Love-lay". I suggest you tinker with the
second syllable.

--
Best -- Donna Richoux
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Robert Banniste
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"Raymond S. Wise" wrote:

[q1]> "meirman" <[email protected]> wrote in message[/q1]
[q1]> news:[email protected]...[/q1]
[q2]> > In alt.english.usage on 16 Jun 2002 21:48:44 GMT [email protected] (Michael J Hardy) posted:[/q2]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q3]> > > meirman ([email protected]) wrote:[/q3]
[q3]> > >[/q3]
[q3]> > >> **Common law, common sense, common denominator and many more. Even the uses where it appears[/q3]
[q3]> > >> insulting, it really just means "frequently seen" and it's the word it is modifying that[/q3]
[q3]> > >> carries the insult, as in "common harlot". "Era" doesn't do that. For all I know, that guy is[/q3]
[q3]> > >> still stewing.[/q3]
[q3]> > >[/q3]
[q3]> > >[/q3]
[q3]> > > In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it[/q3]
[q3]> > > does not mean "frequently seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy[/q3]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q2]> > Oops. Thanks. You are right. Also tenants in common, common wall, and that's all I can think[/q2]
[q2]> > of now.[/q2]
[q2]> >[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> Then there is the noun "commons," based upon the idea of a shared resource, as in Boston Commons[/q1]
[q1]> and in the economic theory "the tragedy of the commons."[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]

How does the "House of Commons" fit into this? The original composition of that house had nothing to
do with the 'common man' nor with the idea of a shared resource.

--
Rob Bannister
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Dr Robin Bignal
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On Tue, 18 Jun 2002 00:55:24 +0200, [email protected] (Donna Richoux) wrote:

[q1]>Lisa Lundgren <[email protected]> wrote:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]>> >On Fri, 14 Jun 2002 23:10:40 +0200, "Mark Wallace" <[email protected]>[/q2]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q2]>> ><wanders off, practising> Luvly. Luvly! *Luvly!* *Luv*ly! l*U*vly! Oh, *******s. Pass me a[/q2]
[q2]>> >spanner. I'll do plumbing, instead.[/q2]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q2]>> Well, that'll throw a wrench into the gears.[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]>When I visited an American friend in London after she had lived there for five years, I definitely[/q1]
[q1]>noticed the way she had picked up a British-sounding "Love-lay". I suggest you tinker with the[/q1]
[q1]>second syllable.[/q1]

I've had one or two love-lays in my time, but they didn't last.

--

wrmst rgrds RB...([email protected] m)
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Mark Wallace
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Donna Richoux wrote:
[q1]> Lisa Lundgren <[email protected]> wrote:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q3]>>> On Fri, 14 Jun 2002 23:10:40 +0200, "Mark Wallace" <[email protected]>[/q3]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q3]>>> <wanders off, practising> Luvly. Luvly! *Luvly!* *Luv*ly! l*U*vly! Oh, *******s. Pass me a[/q3]
[q3]>>> spanner. I'll do plumbing, instead.[/q3]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q2]>> Well, that'll throw a wrench into the gears.[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> When I visited an American friend in London after she had lived there for five years, I definitely[/q1]
[q1]> noticed the way she had picked up a British-sounding "Love-lay". I suggest you tinker with the[/q1]
[q1]> second syllable.[/q1]

You could be on to something, there!

*Love*lay *Luv*lay *Luv*lei *Luv*lei! *Luv*lei!! *Luv*lei!!!

By God and all that's Holy! HOLD ME A SEAT IN THE TYPOWRITING CLASS!

Anyone wanna buy a plumber's mate?

--
Mark Wallace
________________________________ ____________

Ever been stuck on a word, or a point of grammar? You need to visit the APIHNA World Dictionary
http://humorpages.virtualave.net/apihna/apihna-0.htm
________________________________ ____________
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Mark Wallace
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Robert Bannister wrote:
[q1]> "Raymond S. Wise" wrote:[/q1]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q2]>> "meirman" <[email protected]> wrote in message[/q2]
[q2]>> news:[email protected]...[/q2]
[q3]>>> In alt.english.usage on 16 Jun 2002 21:48:44 GMT [email protected] (Michael J Hardy) posted:[/q3]
[q3]>>>[/q3]
[q3]>>>> meirman ([email protected]) wrote:[/q3]
[q3]>>>>[/q3]
[q3]>>>>> **Common law, common sense, common denominator and many more. Even the uses where it appears[/q3]
[q3]>>>>> insulting, it really just means "frequently seen" and it's the word it is modifying that[/q3]
[q3]>>>>> carries the insult, as in "common harlot". "Era" doesn't do that. For all I know, that guy is[/q3]
[q3]>>>>> still stewing.[/q3]
[q3]>>>>[/q3]
[q3]>>>>[/q3]
[q3]>>>> In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it does not mean "frequently[/q3]
[q3]>>>> seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy[/q3]
[q3]>>>[/q3]
[q3]>>> Oops. Thanks. You are right. Also tenants in common, common wall, and that's all I can think[/q3]
[q3]>>> of now.[/q3]
[q3]>>>[/q3]
[q2]>>[/q2]
[q2]>> Then there is the noun "commons," based upon the idea of a shared resource, as in Boston Commons[/q2]
[q2]>> and in the economic theory "the tragedy of the commons."[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> How does the "House of Commons" fit into this? The original composition of that house had nothing[/q1]
[q1]> to do with the 'common man' nor with the idea of a shared resource.[/q1]

"Commoners"/"common people" -- ie. people without titles, unlike the populace of the House of Lords.

--
Mark Wallace
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John Smith
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Thunder9 wrote:
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> Is it acceptable in written English to drop the use of B.C. if your subject matter is entirely in[/q1]
[q1]> B.C.? Have you ever seen an instance of this?[/q1]

Yes. It is common. For example, when a writer is talking about various millenia BC, with the
peopling of the British Isles, the development of iron-working, the advent of the horse, etc., he
doesn't keep repeating the obvious "BC" every time he says "millenium." Unless he is a poor writer.

\\P. Schultz
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Michael J Hardy
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[q1]> In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it[/q1]
[q1]> does not mean "frequently seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy[/q1]

Elaborating on that further, I quote from OED below.
"They have no common ground" is the last example of the first
sense, from 1875, and it's still perfectly current usage today.

Mike Hardy

A. adj. I. Of general, public, or non-private nature.

1. a. `Belonging equally to more than one' (J.); possessed or shared
alike by both or all (the persons or things in question). [{dag}]to have
(anything) common with: now, to have in common with: see COMMON n. 13d.

a1300 Cursor M. 2445 (Cott.) To pastur commun [{th}]ai laght [{th}]e land. 1382 WYCLIF Acts ii.
44 Also alle men that bileuyden weren to gidere, and hadden alle thingis comyn [so 1611]. 1543-4
Act 35 Hen. VIII,
c. 12 The greate Turke, common enemy of all christendome. 1577 B. GOOGE Heresbach's Husb. III.
(1586) 144 Goates have many thinges common with sheep. 1590 SPENSER F.Q. II. iv. 18 With whom
from tender dug of commune nourse Attonce I was upbrought. 1608-11 BP. HALL Medit. & Vows II.
§82 He hath the eye of reason common with the best. 1659 J. LEAK Waterwks. 14 Let the Pipes D
and F be made common by one Pipe. 1671 MILTON Samson 1416 The sight Of me, as of a common
enemy, So dreaded once. 1791 BURKE App. Whigs Wks. VI. 9 The common ruin of king and people.
1832 H. MARTINEAU Life in Wilds ix. 111 The contents being common property. 1840 LARDNER
Geom. 114 These two triangles have D E as a common base. 1875 JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) I. 390
[They] have no common ground.

b. Belonging to all mankind alike; pertaining to the human race as a possession or attribute.

1375 BARBOUR Bruce xx. 155 Of all this liff the commoune end, That is the ded. 1581 J. BELL
Haddon's Answ. Osor. 140 Not to enjoy ye common ayre. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Georg. IV. 698 Longing
the common Light again to share. 1754 SHERLOCK Disc. (1759) I. i. 11 Are you alone exempt from
this common, this universal Blindness? 1868 NETTLESHIP Browning ii. 73 The higher attributes of
our common humanity.

[{dag}]c. General, indiscriminate. Obs.

1463 Bury Wills (1850) 17, I will no comown dole haue, but..eche pore man and eche pore wouman
beyng there haue j d. to prey for me.

2. Belonging to more than one as a result or sign of co-operation, joint action, or agreement;
joint, united. to make common cause (with): to unite one's interests with those of another,
to league together. (See CAUSE n. 11.)

a1300 Cursor M. 9709 (Cott.) Wit-vten vr al comun a-sent Agh to be mad na jugement. c1386 CHAUCER
Man of Law's T. 57 This was the comyn voys of every man. 1538 STARKEY England I. i. 11 A polytyke
ordur..stablyschyd by commyn assent. 1594 (Mar.) Bk. Com. Prayer, Litany, With one accorde to
make our commune supplicacions unto thee. 1682 DRYDEN Relig. Laici Pref., Wks. (Globe) 185 The
weapons..are to be employed for the common cause against the enemies of piety. 1867 FREEMAN Norm.
Conq. (1876) I. v. 349 The habit of common action was still new.

3. Const. in previous senses: a. to.

1303 R. BRUNNE Handl. Synne 10 That ben commune to me and the. 1509 FISHER Wks. 130 Lawes whiche
be comyn bothe to poore and ryche. 1579 GOSSON Sch. Abuse (Arb.) 32 Outwarde sense, which is
common too vs with bruite beasts. 1610 B. JONSON Alch. II. iii, Commune to all metalls, and all
stones. 1714 ADDISON Spect. No. 556 [{page}]12 Faults common to both Parties. 1769 GOLDSM. Rom.
Hist. (1786) II. 165 Crimes..which were common to the emperor, as well as to him. 1879 LOCKYER
Elem. Astron. 296 The force of gravity is common to all kinds of matter.

b. between.

1832 MARRYAT N. Forster iii, They never corresponded (for there was
nothing common between them). 1855 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. III. 82. 1866 J.
MARTINEAU Ess. I. 183 Between `Yes' and `No' there is nothing common.

4. Of general application, general.

c1380 WYCLIF Sel. Wks. III. 114 [{Th}]e fyrste crede..is more comyn and more schortyr [{th}]an
eny o[{th}]er. c1400 Lanfranc's Cirurg. (MS. B.) 5 [{Th}]e firste chappyttle of [{th}]e secunde
techynge a comyn word off wrenchynges out of joynte. 1570 BILLINGSLEY Euclid I. post. i. 7 Common
sentences [axioms] are generall to all things wherunto they can be applied. 1597 HOOKER Eccl.
Pol. V. lvii. §6 Both that which is general or common, and that also which is peculiar unto
itself. 1860 ABP. THOMSON Laws Th. 15 Common notions.

5. a. Of or belonging to the community at large, or to a community or corporation; public.
common crier, public or town crier. [{dag}]common clerk, town clerk. [{dag}]common hunt,
`the chief huntsman belonging to the lord mayor and aldermen of London' (Chambers Cycl.
1751). common seal, the official seal used by a corporation. So COMMON COUNCIL, HALL,
SERJEANT. (Applied to such nouns as hangman, gaol, stocks, etc., common seems to acquire
some opprobrious force; cf. 6b, c, and 8; also the use of vulgar.)

1297 R. GLOUC. (1724) 541 At Seinte Marie churche a clerc the commun belle rong. c1350 Usages of
Winchester in Eng. Gilds 359 A seal commune and an autentyk, myd wham men sele[{th}] [{th}]e
chartres of ffeffement of [{th}]e town. c1374 CHAUCER Troylus III. 1366 The cok, commune
astrologer. 1382 WYCLIF Acts v. 18 And puttiden hem in comun kepyng [1388 in the comyn warde;
Vulg. in custodia publica]. 1426 E.E. Wills (1882) 75 Iohn Carpynter, comon clerk. 1467 Ord.
Worcester in Eng. Gilds 391 That no citezen be putt in comyn prisone, but in oon of the chambors
of the halle benethforth. 1535 COVERDALE Acts xvii. 22 Paul stode on the myddes of the comon
place. 1603 SHAKES. Meas. for M. IV. ii. 9 Heere is in our prison a common executioner. 1697
Lond. Gaz. No. 3341/2 Then the King's Banner born by the Common Hunt. 1714 Ibid. No. 5261/3 The
Common-Cryer and the City-Swordbearer on Horseback. 1718 P. LUDLOW in Swift's Lett. 10 Sept., I
send you the inclosed pamphlet by a private hand, not daring to venture it by the common post.
1775 BURKE Sp. Conc. Amer. Wks. III. 89 Did they burn it by the hands of the common hangman? 1859
TENNYSON Geraint & Enid 450 He sow'd a slander in the common ear.

b. In various phrases which translate or represent L. res publica, as
[{dag}]common good, profit, thing, utility: see COMMONWEAL, COMMONWEALTH.

c1374 CHAUCER Boeth. I. iv. 13 Commune [{th}]inges or comunabletes weren blysful, yif [{th}]ei
[{th}]at haden studied al fully to wisdom gouerneden [{th}]ilke [{th}]inges. c1386 [{emem}]
Clerk's T. 375 But eek, whan that the cas requyred it, The commune profit coude she redresse.
1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) I. 245 Whan Romulus hadde ordeyned for the comoun profi[{ygh}]t [1450
hade institute the commune vtilitie; Higden *** instituisset Romulus rem publicam]. 1393 GOWER
Conf. III. 139 As he was beholde The comun profit for to save. c1440 Promp. Parv. 89 Comowne
[{th}]ynge, or comown goode, Res publica. 1475 Bk. Noblesse 68 The terme of Res publica, whiche
is in Englisshe tong clepid a comyn profit. 1646
c. BENBRIGGE Vsura Acc. 2 More fully would they emptie themselves into the Maine Ocean of the
Common-Good.

d. common right: the right of every citizen. [Cf. F. le droit commun, la loi établie dans un
état, l'usage général.]

c1298 R. GLOUC. 500 `Commune ri[{ygh}]t', quath Pandulf, `we esseth, & namore'. 1581 LAMBARDE
Eiren. I. iii. (1602) 9 Let..common right be done to all, as well poore, as rich. 1603 SHAKES.
Meas. for M. II. iii. 5 Doe me the common right To let me see them.

6. a. Free to be used by every one, public.

1362 LANGL. P. Pl. A. III. 127 Heo is..As comuyn as [{th}]e Cart-wei to knaues and to alle. a1440
Sir Degrev. 143 His ffayre perkes wer comene, And lothlych by-dyght. He closed hys perkes ayene.
1479 Bury Wills (1850) 53 The comoun wey ledyng frome Euston Mille to Rosshworthe. 1600 SHAKES.
A.Y.L. II. iii. 33 A theeuish liuing on the common rode. 1662-3 PEPYS Diary 12 Jan., The Privy
Garden (which is now a through-passage and common). a1674 CLARENDON Surv. Leviath. (1676) 29
They lock their doors that their Houses may not be Common. 1678 BUNYAN Pilgr. I. 64 It is as
common, said they, as this Hill is, to and for all the Pilgrims. 1712 ARBUTHNOT John Bull
108 With that John marched out of the common road cross the country. 1859 JEPHSON Brittany
ii. 19, [I] took my seat on a bench at the common table.

B. common woman: a harlot; so common prostitute, with which compare
c. and sense 8.

a1300 Cursor M. 7176 Si[{th}]en [Sampson] went vntil a tun Til a wijf [{th}]at was commun. 1362
[see prec.]. c1380 WYCLIF Wks. (1880) 231 [{Th}]e ri[{ygh}]tful & witti dom [{th}]at salamon dide
bitwixen tweie comyn wymmen. c1440 Gesta Rom. 391 There she was a Comyn woman, and toke all that
wolde come. 1593 SHAKES. Rich. II, V. iii. 17 He would vnto the Stewes, And from the common'st
creature plucke a Gloue And weare it as a fauour. 1611 [{emem}] Cymb. I. vi. 105. 1663 PEPYS
Diary 18 May, Mrs. Stuart is..they say now a common mistress to the King, as my Lady Castlemaine
is. 1793 BP. WATSON Apol. Bible 264 Your insinuation that Mary Magdalene was a common woman. 1875
JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) III. 163 The common prostitute rarely has any offspring.

c. In various semi-legal or statutory designations, as common alehouse, common brewer, common
carrier, etc., the original meaning appears to be `existing for the use of the public' as
opposed to `private', recognized by the law as bound to serve the public; though other
senses have become associated with this. common lodgings or lodging-house, a lodging-house
in which beds may be obtained for the night (see quot. 1860). (See also quot. 1952.)

1465 PASTON Lett. No. 518 The berer of this lettir is a comon carrier. 1583, 1642 [see CARRIER 3]
1601 DENT Pathw. to Heaven 248 You are..a drinker, a common alehouse-haunter. 1614 ROWLANDS
Fooles Bolt Eiij, A Common Alehouse in this age of sinne, Is now become a common Drunkards Inne.
1707 Lond. Gaz. No. 4293/3 Malt-Milne, and all Conveniencies fit for a Common Brewer. 1851 Act 14
& 15 Vict. c. 28 (title) An Act for the well ordering of Common Lodging Houses. 1860 Act 23 Vict.
c. 26 §3 The Term `Common Lodging House' shall mean a House in which Persons are harboured or
lodged for Hire for a single Night, or for less than a Week at a Time, or any Part of which is
let for any Term less than a Week. 1887 J. W. SMITH Man. Com. Law (ed. 10) 523 Every common
carrier is under a legal obligation to carry all things..which he publicly professes to carry.
1888 Times 13 Oct. 12/1 Living in common lodging-houses. 1891 [see LODGING-HOUSE]. 1902 Encycl.
Brit. XXXII. 680/2 The class found in casual wards, shelters, and common lodgings. 1952 Stroud's
Judicial Dict. (ed.
3) I. 542 There is nothing in s. 235 of the Public Health Act, 1936.., requiring the period of
letting of lodgings in a common lodging house to be for a single night or for less than a week.

4. That is matter of public talk or knowledge, generally known. common bruit, fame, etc.:
popular rumour or report. [{dag}]to make common: to make public, to publish.

1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 304 As the common report went. 1579 LYLY Euphues (Arb.) 111 Doth not
common experience make this common unto vs? 1595 SHAKES. John IV. ii. 187 Yong Arthurs death is
common in their mouths. 1607 [{emem}] Timon V. i. 196 As common bruite doth put it. 1643-5 Years
King Jas. in Select. Harl. Misc. (1793) 308 To write the particulars of their arraignments,
confessions, and the manner of their deaths is needless, being common. 1692 PRIDEAUX Direct.
Ch.-wardens (ed.
5) 6 They are bound to Present not only from their own Knowledge, but also from common Fame. 1768
BLACKSTONE Comm. III. 93 Whereby a common reputation of their matrimony may ensue. 1848 MACAULAY
Hist. Eng. I. 581 How important it is that common fame, however strong and general, should not
be received as a legal proof of guilt.

6. Said of criminals, offenders, and offences; as common barrator, scold, swearer; common
nuisance, common gaming house, etc. (It is difficult to fix the original sense: those of
`public, apert, overt, confessed', `the subject of common report', `notorious', and
`habitual' appear all to enter in; in quot. 1369 comune has been explained as `accustomed,
wont', which comes near that of `habitual'.

1303 R. BRUNNE Handl. Synne 2193 To comun lechours y [{th}]ys seye, Many wy[{th}]outë shryfte
shul deye. 1340 Ayenb. 37 [{Th}]e [{th}]yef commun and open bye[{th}] [{th}]o [{th}]et be zuiche
crefte libbe[{th}]. c1369 CHAUCER Dethe Blaunche 812 Fortune, That is to lyen ful comune, The
false trayteresse, pervers. 1547 Art. Inquiry in Cardwell Doc. Annals
(7) I. 52 Item, Whether parsons, vicars, curates, and other priests, be common haunters and
resorters to taverns or alehouses. 1563 Homilies
II. Idleness (1859) 521 Idle vagabonds and loitering runagates..being common liars, drunkards,
swearers. 1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 644 A common homicide and butcherly murderer. 1614 ROWLANDS
Fooles Bolt Eiij, Certaine common abuses, A common Vag'rant, should by law be stript, And by
a common Beadle soundly whipt..A common Rogue is tennant for the Stockes. [See the whole
poem.] 1769 BLACKSTONE Comm. IV. 169 A common scold, communis rixatrix..is a public nusance
to her neighbourhood. 1771 WESLEY Wks. (1872) V. 221 The baptized liars and common swearers.
1853 WHARTON Digest 501 The offence of being a common scold is indictable.

[{dag}]9. [L. comm[{umac}]nis.] Generally accessible, affable, familiar. Obs. but perhaps
entering into the sense in such a phrase as `to make oneself too common', which has, however,
various associations with senses 10, 11, and esp. 14.

1382 WYCLIF 2 Macc. ix. 27 For to be comoun to [{ygh}]ou [1388 tretable; Vulg. communem vobis].
1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) V. 5 His frendes blamede hym for he was so comyn to alle manere men.
1609 BIBLE (Douay) 2 Macc. ix. 27, I trust that he wil deale modestly and gently..and that he wil
be common unto you.

II. Of ordinary occurrence and quality; hence mean, cheap.

10. a. In general use; of frequent occurrence; usual, ordinary, prevalent, frequent.

c1300 Cursor M. 28045 Bot [{th}]ir er said [{th}]us at [{th}]e leste for[{th}]i [{th}]at [{th}]ai
er comoneste. 1483 CAXTON G. de la Tour Livb, These wordes are but sport and esbatement of lordes
and of felawes in a language moche comyn. 1581 LAMBARDE Eiren. II. ii. (1588) 109 The commune
maner is, to take two Suerties. 1586 A. DAY Eng. Secretary I.
(11) 7 The word is not common amongst us. c1600 SHAKES. Sonn. cii, Sweets grown common lose their
dear delight. 1611 BIBLE Eccl. vi. 1 There is an euill which I haue seen vnder the Sun, and
it is common among men. 1794 MARTYN Rousseau's Bot. xxix. 454 The White Willow, which is a
tree so common in watery situations. 1878 HUXLEY Physiogr. 54 So common a phenomenon as the
formation of dew.

[{dag}]b. Of things: ? Familiar, well-known. Obs.

1393 GOWER Conf. III. 83 All be they nought to me comune, The scoles of philosophy.

12. a. Having ordinary qualities; undistinguished by special or superior characteristics;
pertaining to or characteristic of ordinary persons, life, language, etc.; ordinary.

c1386 CHAUCER Sqr.'s T. 99 Yet seye I this, as to commune entente. Thus muche amounteth al
[{th}]at euere he mente. c1475 Babees Bk. (1868) 1 This tretys the whiche I thenke to wryte Out
of latyn in-to my comvne langage. 1490 CAXTON Eneydos Prol. Ajb, Comyn englysshe that is spoken
in one shyre varyeth from a nother. 1592 SHAKES. Ven. & Ad. 293 So did this horse excel a common
one In shape, etc. 1667 MILTON P.L. II. 371 This would surpass Common revenge. 1704 SWIFT T. Tub
Author's Apol., The commonest reader will find, etc. 1712 ADDISON Spect. No. 287 [{page}]6 The
common Run of Mankind. 1751 JOHNSON Rambler No. 161 [{page}]13 The business of common life. 1866
G. MACDONALD Ann. Q. Neighb. xiv. (1878) 298 Here at least was no common mind. 1878 R. W. DALE
Lect. Preach. ii. 47 If the common language of common men will serve our turn, we should use it.

b. Such as is expected in ordinary cases; of no special quality; mere, bare,
simple,...at least.

1724 SWIFT Drapier's Lett. ii, Should he not first in common sense, in common equity, and common
manners have consulted the principal party concerned? 1736 BUTLER Anal. I. iv. 108 Absolutely
necessary to our acting even a common decent, and common prudent part. 1853 LYTTON My Novel II.
vi. 76 In common gratitude, you see (added the Mayor, coaxingly), I ought to be knighted. 1875
JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) IV. 33 We do not stop to reason about common honesty.

c. Secular; lay; not sacred or holy.

c1380 WYCLIF Serm. Sel. Wks. I. 20 And yet lyven as yvel as o[{th}]ir common men. 1559 in Strype
Ann. Ref. I. App. viii. 22 Monasteries..suppressyd by kings, and other common persons. 1608-11
BP. HALL Epist. VI. Recollect. Treat. 561 How I would passe my dayes, whether common or sacred.
1771 WESLEY Wks. (1872) VI. 151 Vending their wares as on common days.

12. a. Of persons: Undistinguished by rank or position; belonging to the commonalty; of low
degree; esp. in phr. the common people, the masses, populace. (Sometimes contemptuous.)

c1330 R. BRUNNE Chron. (1810) 110 [{Th}]e comon folk. c1340 Cursor M. 235 (Trin.) For comune folk
of engelonde Shulde [{th}]e bettur hit vndirstonde. c1380 Antecrist in Todd 3 Treat. Wyclif 127
[{Th}]at mynystren [{th}]e sacramentis to [{th}]e comyn peple. c1440 Promp. Parv. 89 Comowne
pepylle, vulgus. 1535 COVERDALE Jer. xxxix. 8 What so euer was left of the comen sorte. 1591
SHAKES. 1 Hen. VI, IV. i. 31 Ill beseeming any common man, Much more a Knight, a Captaine, and a
Leader. 1711 ADDISON Spect. No. 70 [{page}]1 The Songs and Fables..in Vogue among the common
People. 1875 JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) I. 317 How little does the common herd know of the nature of
right and truth. 1889 MISS ZIMMERN Hansa Towns 92 The middle class sprang into full being..as a
link between the nobility and the common people.

b. common soldier: an ordinary member of the army, without rank or distinction of any kind.
Ludlow mentions it as an example of the growing insolence of the Parliamentary army, that
the men would no longer be called common but private soldiers. The latter is now the
official expression, `common' being liable to contemptuous associations, as in various
other senses. So with common sailor; also common carpenter, labourer, etc., where the
primary sense was prob. `ordinary' (11).

1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 506 There were taken prisoners..two hundred Gentlemen, besides common
souldiours. 1648 in Tanner MS. LVII. fol. 218 We tooke most of their officers..and 80 common
soldiers. a1674 CLARENDON Hist. VIII. (1843) 487/2 Obtained with the loss of one inferior
officer, and two or three common men. a1687 PETTY Pol. Arith. i. (1691) 30 A common and private
Soldier..to venture their Lives for Six pence a day. 1756 Connoisseur No. 84 [{page}]3 A common
sailor too is full as polite as a common soldier. 1824 BYRON Juan XVI. lxxvi, As common soldiers,
or a common[{em}]shore. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. I. 416 The wages of the common agricultural
labourer. 1853 LYTTON My Novel IV. xiii. 193 Jane Fairfield, who married a common carpenter.

13. Used to indicate the most familiar or most frequently occurring kind or species of any
thing, which requires no specific name; esp. of plants and animals, in which the epithet
tends to become part of the specific name, as in common nightshade, common snake, etc.
common salt: chloride of sodium: see SALT. common or garden: see GARDEN n. 5c.

c1420 Liber Cocorum (1862) 49 [{Ygh}]iff [{th}]ou wylle make a comyne sew. 1577 B. GOOGE
Heresbach's Husb. IV. (1586) 157 The common Poultrie, that we keepe about our houses. 1676 Phil.
Trans. XI. 613 The Salt, that is called Common-Salt. 1748 FRANKLIN Wks. (1840) V. 221 Common fire
is in all bodies, more or less, as well as electrical fire. 1789 G. WHITE Selborne xiii. (1853)
56 Vast flocks of the common linnet. 1794 MARTYN Rousseau's Bot. xxix. 455 Common or White
Misseltoe (Viscum album Lin.). 1832 Veg. Subst. Food 215 The sub-varieties of the common pea are
never-ending. 1847 CARPENTER Zool. §11 The Common Dog is a species of the genus Canis.

14. In depreciatory use: a. Of merely ordinary or inferior quality, of little value, mean; not
rare or costly.

1393 LANGL. P. Pl. C. XXI. 409 Ich wol drynke of no dich, ne of no deop cleregie, Bote of comune
coppes, alle cristene soules. 1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. 61 The windowes of painted glasse (no
common ware). 1675 TRAHERNE Chr. Ethics xxv. 378 Every thing that is divested of all its
excellence, is common, if not odious, and lost to our affection. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Past. VII. 89
And while she loves that common Wreath to wear, Nor Bays, nor Myrtle Boughs, with Hazel shall
compare. 1821 BYRON Irish Avatar viii, He is but the commonest clay. 1884 Manch. Exam. 17 May
15/1 Tobacco of the commoner sort.

b. Of persons and their qualities: Low-class, vulgar, unrefined.

1866 G. MACDONALD Ann. Q. Neighb. xxx. (1878) 526 Her speech was very common. Mod. Who is she?
she has rather a common look.

15. Not ceremonially clean or sanctified. (In N.T. and derived use: =
Hellenistic Gr. [{kappa}][{omicron}][{iota}][{nu}][{goacu}][{fsigma}].)

a1300 Cursor M. 19871 (Cott.) Call noght comun, it es vn-right, [{Th}]at clenged has vr lauerd
dright. 1382 WYCLIF Acts x. 14, I neuere eet al comyn thing and vnclene. 1526 TINDALE Mark vii. 2
They sawe certayne of his disciples eate breed with commen hondes (that is to saye, with
vnwesshen hondes). 1611 BIBLE Acts x. 14. 1849 ROBERTSON Serm. Ser.
IV. xiv. (1882) 137 Sanctified by Him, there can be no man common or unclean.

III. Technical uses:

* from I.

16. Math. Said of a number or quantity which belongs equally to two or more quantities; as
in common denominator, divisor, factor, measure, multiple; common difference, ratio
(in series).

1594 BLUNDEVIL Exerc. I. vii. (ed. 7) 26 Multiply the Denominators the one into the other, and
the Product therof shall bee a common Denominator to both the fractions. 1827 HUTTON Course Math.
I. 53 The Common Measure of two or more numbers, is that..which will divide them all without
remainder. 1875 JEVONS Money (1878) 123 A geometrical series with the common ratio 3.

17. Gram. and Logic. a. common noun, substantive, name, term: a name applicable to each of the
individuals or species which make up a class or genus.

[1551 TURNER Herbal I. Kiva, Alga whiche is a common name vnto a great parte of see herbes. 1596
SHAKES. 1 Hen. IV, II. i. 104 Homo is a common name to all men. 1681 DRYDEN Abs. & Achit. 681 For
Witness is a Common Name to all. 1846 MILL Logic (1856) I. 30 The word colour, which is a name
common to whiteness, redness, etc.]

1725 WATTS Logic I. iv. §4 Names are either common or proper. Common names are such as stand for
universal ideas, or a whole rank of beings. 1765 W. WARD Gram. 30 The common or appellative
substantive, by which every object of its class..is denoted. 1866 T. FOWLER Deduct. Logic
(18) 13 A common term is equally applicable to each individual severally of the group which it
expresses, and it is so in virtue of certain points of similarity which all the individuals
possess in common.

b. In Latin, Greek, etc.: Of either gender, optionally masculine or feminine. (b) In some
langs., as Danish, applied to the single grammatical gender into which the masculine and
feminine have coalesced. (c) In modern English Grammar: Applicable to individuals of
either sex, as parent, spouse, swan.

1530 PALSGR. Introd. 24 Genders they have thre, the masculyn, femenyn, and the commyn both to the
masculyn and femenyn. Ibid. 30 Se..beyng of the commen gendre. 1857 Danish Gram. 8 There are in
Danish only two Genders for the Nouns, the Common Gender and the Neuter. To the Common Gender
belong the names of men, women, animals, etc. 1871 ROBY Lat. Gram. §315 In Ennius and Nævius
puer, nepos, and socrus are common. 1875 R. MORRIS Elem. Hist. Gram. 66 Witch was of the common
gender up to a very late period.

c. Latin and Greek Gram. Applied to verbs that have both an active and a passive
signification.

1530 PALSGR. 107 The Latins have many other sortes of verbes personalles, besydes actives, as
neuters, deponentes, commons. 1755 JOHNSON s.v., Such verbs as signify both action and passion
are called common; as aspernor, I despise, or am despised.

d. Prosody. Of syllables (in words or in metrical schemes): Optionally short or long, of
variable quantity. (Marked thus: [{shtlong1}] or [{shtlong2}]).

1699 BENTLEY Phal. 132 All the Moderns before had supposed, that the last Syllable of every Verse
was common, as well in Anapæsts, as they are known to be in Hexameters and others. 1871 ROBY Lat.
Gram. §281 In Nominatives of Proper names with consonant stems o is common. Ibid. §287 In
D[{ibrevemac}]ana and [{obrevemac}]h[{emac}] the first syllable is common.

18. a. Anat. Said of the trunk from which two or more arteries, veins, or nerves are given off,
as the common carotid arteries. b. Bot. Said of an organ which has a joint relation to
several distinct parts, as common calyx, perianth, petiole, receptacle. common bud: one
that contains both leaves and flowers. common bundle: see quot.

[1750 LINNÆUS Philos. Bot. 54 Receptaculum commune.] 1794 MARTYN Rousseau's Bot. vi. 63 All these
little flowers are..inclosed in a calyx, which is common to them all, and which is that of the
daisy. 1842 E. WILSON Anat. Vade-M. 349 The common iliac veins are formed by the union of the
external and internal iliac vein on each side of the pelvis. 1857 HENFREY Elem. Bot. 78 An
involucre of overlapping bracts, presenting a convex, flat or concave surface (common
receptacle), upon which are crowded a number of sessile flowers. Ibid. 79 This inflorescence was
formerly called a compound flower, and its involucre a common calyx. 1875 BENNETT tr. Sachs' Bot.
134 In Phanerogams..the whole [fibro-vascular] bundle is a `common' one, i.e. common to both stem
and leaves.

c. common feeling = C[{oe}]NÆSTHESIS.

1837 [see C[{oe}]NÆSTHESIS]. 1897 C. H. JUDD tr. Wundt's Outl. Psychol. 161 The common feeling is
always the immediate expression of our sensible comfort and discomfort.

** Technical uses from II.

19. a. Mus. common chord: see CHORD n.2 3. common time (or measure), time or rhythm consisting
of two or four beats in a bar; esp. applied to 4-4 time (4 crotchets in a bar). common
turn: see TURN n. 5.

1674 PLAYFORD Skill Mus. I. x. 34 This is called the Dupla or Semibreve Time (but many call it
the Common Time, because most used). 1749 Numbers in Poet. Comp. 31 In Tunes of Common-Time. 1880
Grove's Dict. Mus. I.
20/1 Although the term common time is generally applied to all equal rhythms, it properly belongs
only to that of four crotchets in a bar..denoted by the sign C.

b. common metre: an iambic stanza of four lines containing 8 and 6 syllables alternately.

1718 WATTS Psalms Pref., I have formed my verse in the three most usual metres to which our psalm
tunes are fitted, namely, the common metre, the metre of the old twenty-fifth psalm, which I call
short metre, and that of the old hundredth psalm, which I call long metre.

20. Building. (See quots.)

1823 CRABB Technol. Dict., Common centering, a centering without trusses, having a tie-beam at
the bottom. Common joists, the beams in single, naked flooring, to which the joists are fixed.
Common rafters, those to which the boarding or lathing is fixed. 1823 P. NICHOLSON Pract. Build.
128 Common rafters are inclined pieces of timber, parallel to the principal rafters, supported by
the pole-plates. 1842-76 GWILT Archit. Gloss., Common roofing, that which consists of common
rafters only, which bridge over the purlins in a strongly framed roof. 1850 WEALE Dict. Terms,
Common pitch, an old term still applied by country workmen to a roof in which the length of the
rafters is about three-fourths of the entire span.

21. Legal and other phrases (mostly from I.). common assurances: the legal evidences of the
translation of property; [{dag}]common bail: see quot; [{dag}]common bar: a bar to an
action for trespass, produced by the defendant's allegation that the place on which the
alleged trespass occurred was his own; [{dag}]common bench: old name of the Court of Common
Pleas (see BENCH n. 2b); common case: a single word-form or grammatical case serving the
syntactic and semantic functions of a number of different case-forms of inflected
languages, as in modern English, where the uninflected base of nouns corresponds to the
nominative, vocative, accusative, etc., cases of nouns in some other languages; also
attrib.; common cold = COLD n. 4b; [{dag}]common court: court of Common Pleas; common
dialect [Gr. [{hasper}] [{kappa}][{omicron}][{iota}][{nu}][{ghgrave}]
[{delta}][{iota}][{gaacu}][{lambda}][{epsilon}][{kappa}][{tau}][{omicron}][{fsigma}]]: the
form of the Greek language employed by prose writers from the Macedonian conquest to the
Byzantine period; common field: = COMMON n.; [{dag}]common fine: see quot.; common form:
(a) a form of probate in which the grant is made by the executor's own oath without
opposition; (b) a customary form of words used in the pleadings in actions at common law;
(c) a form of words common to documents of the same species; hence colloq., a formula, mode
of behaviour, etc., of general application; common informer: see INFORMER 3; [{dag}]common
intendment: see INTENDMENT; common jury: see JURY; common land: = COMMON
n.; common market: a group of countries imposing few or no duties on trade with one another and
a common tariff on trade with outside countries; spec. (with capital initials), the trade
association of France, the German Federal Republic, Italy, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg
instituted in 1958; also attrib., transf., and fig.; hence common marketeer; [{dag}]common
person: a person who acts for or represents another; a number: see PERSON; common recovery:
see RECOVERY; common roll: a roll of electors which includes in a single series the members of
two or more different races; also attrib.; common school
(n.A.): a school publicly maintained for elementary education; [{dag}]common service: = COMMON
PRAYER; common-sex pronoun: a pronoun applicable to both masculine and feminine; [{dag}]common
side: the side of Newgate where common offenders were imprisoned (opp. to State side); common
stock (N. Amer.): ordinary shares; also ellipt. common; common tenancy: = tenancy in common
(see COMMON n. 13e); [{dag}]common wit: = COMMON SENSE.

1767 BLACKSTONE Comm. II. 294 The legal evidences of this translation of property are called the
*common assurances of the kingdom; whereby every man's estate is assured to him.
--------------------------------------------------------
1678 BUTLER Hud. III. iii. 765 Where Vouchers, Forgers, *Common-bayl, And Affidavit-men, ne'r fail
T'expose to Sale all sorts of Oaths. 1768 BLACKSTONE Comm. III. 287 The defendant..puts in sureties
for his future attendance and obedience; which sureties are called common bail. 1848 WHARTON Law
Lex. s.v. Bail, Common bail, or bail below, is given to the sheriff, after arresting a person, on a
bail-bond, entered into by two sureties, on condition that the defendant appear at the day and in
such place as the arresting process commands.
--------------------------------------------------------
1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 351 Chiefe Justice of the *common benche.
--------------------------------------------------------
1892 H. SWEET New Eng. Gram. I. I. 52 English has only one inflected case, the genitive (man's
men's), the uninflected base constituting the *common case (man, men). 1894 JESPERSEN Progress in
Lang. 166 The old nominative, accusative, dative and instrumental cases have coalesced to form a
common case. 1961 R. B. LONG Sentence ii. 36 Words of no other kind [than verbs] take the
nominative and common-case forms of the personal pronouns as prepositive modifiers in this way.
--------------------------------------------------------
1786 E. SHERIDAN Jrnl. (1960) 82 With proper care that disorder is now almost less than a *common
cold. 1872 [see COLD n. 4b]. 1937 H. G. WELLS Star Begotten ix. 175 That beats us[{em}]just as the
common cold beats us[{em}]or cancer.
--------------------------------------------------------
1377 LANGL. P. Pl. B. III. 318 Kynges courte and *comune courte, consistorie and chapitele, Al shal
be but one courte, and one baroun be iustice.
--------------------------------------------------------
1838 Penny Cycl. XI. 428/2 Thus the Attic dialect, somewhat modified by the peculiarities of other
dialects, was called the common or Hellenic dialect..Poetry however was not written in this
*common dialect.
--------------------------------------------------------
1523 FITZHERB. Surv. 2 In the *commyn feldes among other mennes landes. 1705 STANHOPE Paraph. II.
171 A mixture of Tares in this Common-field of the World. 1822 COBBETT Rur. Rides (1885) I. 98
Those very ugly things, common-fields, which have all the nakedness, without any of the
smoothness, of Downs.
--------------------------------------------------------
1641 Termes de la Ley 68 *Common Fine is a certain summe of money which the resiants in a Leet pay
unto the Lord of the Leet, and it is called in some places Head-silver.
--------------------------------------------------------
1766 BLACKSTONE Comm. II. 508 The executor..must prove the will of the deceased: which is done
either in *common form, which is only upon his own oath before the ordinary, or his surrogate; or
per testes, in more solemn form of law, in case the validity of the will be disputed. 1797 TOMLINS
Jacob's Law-Dict. s.v. Pleading I. 2 Special Pleas..always advance some new fact not mentioned in
the declaration; and then they must be [ed. Granger (1835) they formerly must have been] averred to
be true, in the common form:[{em}]`and this he is ready to verify.' 1820 in Barnewell & Alderson
Rep. Cases K.B. III. 451 If the argument on the part of the plaintiff prevail, the common form of
pleading not guilty of the grievances is bad upon special demurrer. 1857 Act 20 & 21 Vict. c. 77 §2
`Common Form Business' shall mean the Business of obtaining Probate and Administration where there
is no Contention as to the Right thereto, [etc.]. 1871 [see FORM n. 9]. 1888 Encycl. Brit. XXIV.
572/2 Probate is confined as a rule to wills of personalty or of mixed personalty and realty, and
is either in common form, where no opposition to the grant is made, or in solemn form, generally
after opposition, when the witnesses appear in court. 1905 Spectator 18 Feb. 242 The article is
what lawyers know as `common form', and means simply that the nation leaves it to its Executive to
settle the details. 1931 S.P.E. Tract XXXVI. 517 If you should split all your infinitives,
evidently the device would lose its peculiar efficacy: the locution would become mere common form.
1932 KIPLING Limits & Renewals 14 The girl, of course, is in love with a younger and a poorer man.
Common form? Granted.
--------------------------------------------------------
1954 Ann. Reg. 1953 153 The provisions..for the gradual establishment of a European *common market.
1956 Planning 17 Dec. 225 In a free trade area each participating country is allowed to fix its own
tariff to countries outside the free trade area; a common market requires an external tariff. 1957
Economist 12 Oct. Suppl. 1 The Common Market: a treaty to set up a European Economic Community
signed at Rome in March by six countries. 1958 Punch 1 Jan. 75/2 The Common Market countries very
naturally are not prepared to admit Britain to partnership as a favoured nation. 1961
n.A.A. Handbk. (1962) 34 What prospects of new material, exciting material, from the United States
and from Canada this opens up[{em}]a common market of the air. 1962 Listener 8 Mar. 445/1 In
its relations with other Christian Communions it [sc. Anglicanism] moves carefully towards
the goal of a common market of worship that may demand some sacrifice of national character.
Ibid. 26 July 125/2 The same preferential treatment obtaining between the six Common
Marketeers. 1963 Ibid. 17 Jan. 110/2 They [sc. the progressive African leaders] usually seek
wider areas of economic coordination and have begun to talk of the possibility of an African
common market. 1970 Daily Tel. 17 Apr. 2/8 The surgeon..predicted a future European `common
market' of transplant organs.
--------------------------------------------------------
1955 Times 6 July 8/3 The congress demanded that the principle of the *common roll should be
granted now. 1958 Economist 1 Nov. 402/2 A trial run for the common roll elections due in 1961.
--------------------------------------------------------
a1657 W. BRADFORD Hist. Plimoth Plantation (1899) 194 We have no *comone schoole for want of a fitt
person. 1795 in R. Boese Public Educ. in City of N.Y. (1869) 21 The establishment of Common Schools
throughout the state. 1886 MORLEY Pop. Culture Crit. Misc. III. 10, I could not help noticing that
the history classes in their common schools all began their work with the year 1776.
--------------------------------------------------------
1580 J. FECKNAM in Strype Ann. Ref. I. App. xxxi, The Book of *Common Service, now used in the
Church of England.
--------------------------------------------------------
1922 JESPERSEN Lang. xviii. 347 How convenient it is to have the *common-sex pronouns lu (he or
she), singlu, [etc.].
--------------------------------------------------------
1708 MOTTEUX Rabelais IV. lxvi. (1737) 271 The very Out-casts of the County-Goal's *Common-side.
1725 Lond. Gaz. No. 6385/3 Prisoner in the Common Side of Newgate. 1812 Examiner 7 Sept. 574/2
note, The Common-side of the Prison.
--------------------------------------------------------
1888 Realty & Building (Chicago) 27 Oct. 3/2 The St. Paul has not challenged particular attention
since the first effects of its passage of the dividend on the *common stock were spent. 1966 `E.
LATHEN' Murder makes Wheels go Round i. 4 `We're thinking in terms of an offering of one million
five of the common,' he said. 1968 Globe & Mail (Toronto) 13 Feb.
B4/4 Investment in common stocks isn't a pat answer to inflation.
--------------------------------------------------------
1398 TREVISA Barth. De P.R. VI. xxv. (Tollem. MS.), [{Th}]e lyme of [{th}]e *comyn wit [organum
sensus communis] is bounde. The whiche lyme is centrum and middel of all [{th}]e parties. 1509
HAWES Past. Pleas.
XXIV. ii, These are the v. wyttes..Fyrst, commyn wytte, and than ymaginacyon, Fantasy, and
estymacyon truely, And memory.
--------------------------------------------------------

22. Comb., as in adjs. [{dag}]common-booked, -faced, [{dag}]-hackneyed, [{dag}]-kissing,
-sized, etc.; in sense 14, common-looking.

1586 WARNER Alb. Eng II. x. 48 Common-booked Poetrie. 1596 SHAKES. 1 Hen. IV, III. ii. 40 Had I
so lauish of my presence beene, So common hackney'd in the eyes of men. 1611 [{emem}] Cymb. III.
iv. 166 Exposing
it..to the greedy touch Of common-kissing Titan. 1820 SYD. SMITH Wks.
(1859) I. 302/1 Apt to dress up common-sized thoughts in big clothes. 1838 DICKENS O. Twist viii,
He was a snub-nosed, flat-browed, common-faced boy enough. 1858 GREENER Gunnery 305 With a
common-sized gun. 1860-5 A. LINCOLN in Cent. Mag. Feb. (1890) 573/2 `He is a common-looking
fellow', some one said. 1883 LLOYD Ebb & Flow II. 294 A rough common-looking woman.

B. quasi-adv. = COMMONLY. Obs. exc. U.S. colloq.

a1300 Cursor M. 28045 (Cott.) [{Th}]ai ar funden communest. 1600 SHAKES. A.Y.L. I. iii. 117
Because that I am more then common tall. 1784 New Spectator I. 5/2 Beards..in this country are
worn..as common as wigs and pig-tails among us. 1798 Monthly Mag. II. 437/2 Silly is used for
weak in body..for common, commonly. 1883 SWEET & KNOX Through Texas
(1884) 44 He had sort o' aggravated me more than common that morning. 1916 E. PORTER Just David 75
We don't use this room common, little boy.
0
Michael J Hardy
Badges:
#40
Report 17 years ago
#40
Ann ([email protected]) wrote:

[q2]> > In "common denominator" and a variety of other locutions, it[/q2]
[q2]> > does not mean "frequently seen"; it means "shared". -- Mike Hardy[/q2]
[q1]>[/q1]
[q1]> I don't get that. The only way I know that it's used insultingly is in calling someone plain[/q1]
[q1]> common. It doesn't then mean 'frequently seen' or 'shared'....[/q1]

Or "common criminal" or the like. But I was trying to exhibit a sense of the word that is *not*
insulting. -- Mike Hardy
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