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clinical biochemistry and diagnostic

I have got to write a review article on the diseases and factors that affect levels and accurate quantification of total serum protein and albumin in humans.

but I don't know how to start answering it or structure it, could someone plzzzz give me some tips on that question, I'll appreciate it :smile:
Original post by Manahil Ibrahim
I have got to write a review article on the diseases and factors that affect levels and accurate quantification of total serum protein and albumin in humans.

but I don't know how to start answering it or structure it, could someone plzzzz give me some tips on that question, I'll appreciate it :smile:


Sure, here are some tips on how to approach writing a review article on the diseases and factors that affect levels and accurate quantification of total serum protein and albumin in humans:

Research: Start by researching and gathering information on the diseases and factors that affect levels and accurate quantification of total serum protein and albumin in humans. This could include reading scientific papers, reviews, and textbooks.

Create an outline: After gathering information, create an outline of your review article. This will help you organize your thoughts and make sure you cover all the important points. Your outline could include an introduction, a brief overview of total serum protein and albumin, diseases that affect protein and albumin levels, factors affecting protein and albumin levels, accurate quantification of protein and albumin, and a conclusion.

Introduction: Your introduction should briefly explain what total serum protein and albumin are, their importance, and the relevance of the topic.

Overview: The overview section should provide a brief explanation of total serum protein and albumin and their functions in the body.

Diseases affecting protein and albumin levels: In this section, discuss the diseases that affect protein and albumin levels, such as liver disease, kidney disease, and malnutrition.

Factors affecting protein and albumin levels: In this section, discuss the factors that affect protein and albumin levels, such as age, gender, pregnancy, and medication use.

Accurate quantification of protein and albumin: In this section, discuss the different methods used to accurately quantify protein and albumin levels, such as electrophoresis, immunoassays, and chromatography.

Conclusion: In the conclusion, summarize the key points of the article and discuss the importance of accurately measuring protein and albumin levels in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Remember to use reliable sources and provide citations for any information you use in your review article. Good luck with your writing!
Original post by Curious_Bilawi
Sure, here are some tips on how to approach writing a review article on the diseases and factors that affect levels and accurate quantification of total serum protein and albumin in humans:

Research: Start by researching and gathering information on the diseases and factors that affect levels and accurate quantification of total serum protein and albumin in humans. This could include reading scientific papers, reviews, and textbooks.

Create an outline: After gathering information, create an outline of your review article. This will help you organize your thoughts and make sure you cover all the important points. Your outline could include an introduction, a brief overview of total serum protein and albumin, diseases that affect protein and albumin levels, factors affecting protein and albumin levels, accurate quantification of protein and albumin, and a conclusion.

Introduction: Your introduction should briefly explain what total serum protein and albumin are, their importance, and the relevance of the topic.

Overview: The overview section should provide a brief explanation of total serum protein and albumin and their functions in the body.

Diseases affecting protein and albumin levels: In this section, discuss the diseases that affect protein and albumin levels, such as liver disease, kidney disease, and malnutrition.

Factors affecting protein and albumin levels: In this section, discuss the factors that affect protein and albumin levels, such as age, gender, pregnancy, and medication use.

Accurate quantification of protein and albumin: In this section, discuss the different methods used to accurately quantify protein and albumin levels, such as electrophoresis, immunoassays, and chromatography.

Conclusion: In the conclusion, summarize the key points of the article and discuss the importance of accurately measuring protein and albumin levels in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Remember to use reliable sources and provide citations for any information you use in your review article. Good luck with your writing!


Hi, I hope you are doing well ! Thank you so much for your help; I appreciate it !!!!!!!!

I have a question about a case study. I am trying to figure out the diagnosis and come up with a conclusion about this patient's condition, but I am struggling with that. Could you please help me? I'd appreciate it !!!!

I have attached the case study below 👇🏽

A 24-year-old male student broke his fibula playing football. He was otherwise fit and healthy and was not taking any medication. He had a family history of diabetes mellitus and a sister with a history of venous thromboembolism. She is being treated with warfarin.

When having his cast checked he was found to have swelling and oedema in the leg. Doppler ultrasound confirmed that he had a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the popliteal vein. He was admitted and treated with heparin. On the fourth day he suffered a pulmonary embolism (PE). Both the DVT and PE resolved with further heparin treatment.

He was started on long term warfarin treatment after a thrombophilia screen:
Antithrombin activity- 92% (NR 80-120%)
Protein S level normal
Protein C level - normal
Factor V Leiden mutation - positive
Prothrombin 20210 mutation - negative

Discuss the results of the thrombophilia screen and laboratory monitoring of this patient’s treatment.
Original post by Manahil Ibrahim
Hi, I hope you are doing well ! Thank you so much for your help; I appreciate it !!!!!!!!

I have a question about a case study. I am trying to figure out the diagnosis and come up with a conclusion about this patient's condition, but I am struggling with that. Could you please help me? I'd appreciate it !!!!

I have attached the case study below 👇🏽

A 24-year-old male student broke his fibula playing football. He was otherwise fit and healthy and was not taking any medication. He had a family history of diabetes mellitus and a sister with a history of venous thromboembolism. She is being treated with warfarin.

When having his cast checked he was found to have swelling and oedema in the leg. Doppler ultrasound confirmed that he had a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the popliteal vein. He was admitted and treated with heparin. On the fourth day he suffered a pulmonary embolism (PE). Both the DVT and PE resolved with further heparin treatment.

He was started on long term warfarin treatment after a thrombophilia screen:
Antithrombin activity- 92% (NR 80-120%)
Protein S level normal
Protein C level - normal
Factor V Leiden mutation - positive
Prothrombin 20210 mutation - negative

Discuss the results of the thrombophilia screen and laboratory monitoring of this patient’s treatment.


The only abnormal result is that the factor V Leiden mutation is positive. What is factor V and what is the Leiden mutation? How might this predispose to VTE?

With regards to warfarin treatment, what laboratory test do you use to monitor treatment and adjust the dose?

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