midnightoil
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#1
Hi, anyonelse scared for 9th of June?
Predictions?
I'm predicting for my own units

Theories of love

Theories of sleep

Development of Human Intelligence

Psycho / Biological explanations of depression

Reductionism / Nature Nurture

+ Approaches.

Would be interested to hear what other people predict and also would be really grateful for any notes / essays on the evolutionary explanations of mental / anxiety disorders!!

Cheers people
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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Hi
Man im freaking for the june exam. Resitting From jan due to a slip up. for last 3 modules i have A A B and coursework B and then in jan pya4 i got just under a C dont know what happened
Starting my psy revision today 4 intense days of essay writing should do the trick and then pya5 is bit easier.

my predictions for my units are:

Q2: Theories of Breakdown of relationships.

Q3: Media influence on pro or antisocial behavior

Q11: Explanations of personality development (eg: psychodynamic or social learning)

Will soon post up essays pertaining to my modules, hope others do the same.

Lets get this thread going!!
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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K this is a long essay i know but its a strong A grade so possible to use for notes if you like.

Q: Outline and evaluate TWO explanations relating to the breakdown of relationships. (24marks)

AO1
The model of dissolution (Duck 1999) suggests that there are four distinct stages in which a couple goes through on the path to ending a relationship. Each stage leads into the other once thresholds have been reached. The final stage sees the end of the relationship. The Four stages in order are:
The Intrapsychic phase, in which one or both partners reflect upon problems within the relationship and decide to “put things right”. Open prompts or hints initiate the pass over into the next stage.
The Dyadic phase involves open confrontation with partner in order to try and resolve the problems within the relationship. It is possible to resume healthy relationship from this point but further confrontation pushes through the threshold to the next stage.
The social phase is the time in which a third party is brought into the argument (friends and family) in order to either help resolve the problem or speed the process into the next stage.
The grave dressing phase takes place after the breakup and acts as a way of self justifying the reasons for separating in order to make the individuals feel better or appear better to people they intend to have future relationships with.

AO2
A study on 112 pre marital breakups performed by Lee (1984) found that there are five distinct stages in the breakdown of relationships which fit very closely with ducks model. Lee found that the first stages are the most important because they house the most stress and anxiety to one or more of the partners. Once the need to “set things right” disappears the stress is decreased and justification can begin (seen in Grave dressing phase)
The strong aspect to ducks model is that it considers dissolution not as a sudden step but as a process and highlights that at certain stages repair is possible.
The models big flaw is that it does not consider why a relationship fails or what causes the problems leading to the phases in the first place. Also it fails to include the actual break up experience in the model. Akert (1998) found in a study of students that when both partners were included in the break up decisions, the stress involved was relieved.
Ducks model follows a strict order and assumes that all relationships are the same which does not allow for cultural or ethnical differences

AO1
Reasons for relationship breakdown (duck 1999) is a model that expands on the dissolution model in a sense that it identifies the reason why breakdown occurs. Dissolution can occur to three factors that can be further subdivided. They include ‘lack of skills’ in which the lack of interpersonal skills such as conversation can lead to feelings of perceived disinterest by the partner and thus causes resentment.’ Lack of stimulation’ such as rewards can lead to the belief that the relationship is not going anywhere and as a result partner may want out. ‘Maintenance difficulties’ can occur when partners cannot, through possibly no fault of their own, spend time together and this causes strain and possible breakdown. A healthy relationship needs constant maintenance and if this does not exist then dissolution will occur.

AO2
The main strength of this model is that unlike previous dissolution models (Lee, Duck) it highlights the actual reasons for relationship breakdown. Although individual differences may negate the effect of some, for instance Rohflings (1998) study on long distance relationships found that long distance romantic relationships are more common than we think with 70% of sampled pps having experienced successful long term relationships. Halt and stone (1985) suggested that relationships can stay healthy as long as regular interaction takes place. Gender differences are a possibility with both men and women having different agendas that may interfere with their partner.
The issue with this model is that by itself, it is not possible to asses relationship breakdown completely due to the lack of the description of breakdown processes, but combined with ducks model of dissolution it acts as a detailed and explanatory model, but only for western relationships because in non western relationships there may be unexplored pressure factors on relationships that are ignored in the model (eg: community pressures).
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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This one is closer to the normal length and took me the normal time 30mins. Hope it helps

Q (a) Outline TWO explanations of attraction and the formation of relationships (eg: the matching hypothesis, evolutionary explanations) (12mark)

The socio biological (evolutionary) theory

The evolutionary theory of attraction states that we as human beings are attracted to physical features in the opposite sex that indicate good health age and breeding quality. This is due to our primary aim being the need to create strong genes for our future generations. What is seen as the best mate varies between both sexes. Men tend to look for physical features such as large breasts, wide hips and youthful features (babyface hypothesis). While women look for social standing which suggests a good hunter and the ability to provide protection. Another aspect of the evolutionary theory is the presence of parental investment. Women invest a large amount of time into reproduction and care of offspring and thus they search for support when choosing a mate while men have minimal investment and therefore focus on obtaining as many mates as possible. These filters act as the framework for attraction between humans.

The matching hypothesis
The matching hypothesis (Murnstein 1972) states that people ideally want the most attractive partner available but tend to form relationships with people they view as being the same level of attractiveness as themselves. A person determines their own level of attractiveness and then searches for a partner that they feel is on a similar level to themselves. It is suggested that this is due to the fear of rejection and the need to find a “fitting” partner that best reflects what they have to offer, such as looks, personality and intelligence. This therefore makes the relationship fair.

Q (b) Evaluate ONE of the explanations you have outlined in your answer to part (a) (12mark)

The matching hypothesis has been tested by Walster et al (1966) in which students at a dance were asked to fill in a questionnaire that would provide the basis for pairing of partners. Students were actually assigned to each other randomly and it was found that attractive students were rated as better partners then unattractive ones. This study while supporting the statement that we seek the most attractive mate, does not support the matching hypothesis because students could not choose for themselves based on their own levels. A repeat of the study performed again by Walster (1969) allowed students to socialise before the dance and it was found that similarly attractive people paired together which supported the hypothesis.
Murstein (1972) found that engaged or married couples were judged to be of the same level of attractiveness.
Walsters study can be criticised because it was an artificial situation where the fear of rejection was non existant and thus findings could not be accurately applied to real life scenarios. The participant sample was of US students of similar age and thus sample bias is present in the conclusions. The matching hypothesis is reductionist due to the fact that it does not factor in the existence of love in its model of attraction. Cultural variations exist within the hypothesis which are not take into account in any supporting studies. Other cultures such as eastern countries regard attractiveness in a different manor. Introverted behaviour is found attractive whereas in western countries extroversion is an attractive quality.
In conclusion it can be said that the matching hypothesis can be found to be supported in western cultures, such that relationships are formed on the basis of levels of attractiveness whereas in collectivist cultures relationship formation takes place under the influence of the community and also ideas of what is attractive changes with different cultures.
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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il upload one on love once ive finished it.

Can anyone upload some notes or essays on pro and antisocial behavior please its not my best area
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sleekchic
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Isn't PYA5 the 15th of June and PYA4 the 9th of June?
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Stex Bomb
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(Original post by CHRISCREAVEN1990)
Hi
Man im freaking for the june exam. Resitting From jan due to a slip up. for last 3 modules i have A A B and coursework B and then in jan pya4 i got just under a C dont know what happened
Starting my psy revision today 4 intense days of essay writing should do the trick and then pya5 is bit easier.

my predictions for my units are:

Q2: Theories of Breakdown of relationships.

Q3: Media influence on pro or antisocial behavior

Q11: Explanations of personality development (eg: psychodynamic or social learning)



Will soon post up essays pertaining to my modules, hope others do the same.

Lets get this thread going!!
Theories of Breakdown of relationships came up in the Jan 09 PYA 4 paper

I doubt it'll make a consecutive appearance!
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Falcon_2007
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(Original post by CHRISCREAVEN1990)
Hi
Man im freaking for the june exam. Resitting From jan due to a slip up. for last 3 modules i have A A B and coursework B and then in jan pya4 i got just under a C dont know what happened
Starting my psy revision today 4 intense days of essay writing should do the trick and then pya5 is bit easier.

my predictions for my units are:

Q2: Theories of Breakdown of relationships.

Q3: Media influence on pro or antisocial behavior

Q11: Explanations of personality development (eg: psychodynamic or social learning)

Will soon post up essays pertaining to my modules, hope others do the same.

Lets get this thread going!!

Perosnality already came up 2 times in a row ... doubt it if it will turn up again ... my best bet will be on :

Sleep & dreaming.
Adolesence and Gender.
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sleekchic
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Can we not make the mistake of thinking that because something has come up twice it won't come up again.

For PYA2, Outline and Evaluate definitions of abnormaity had come up twice before and I thought it won't come out again but it did in Jan.
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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Gender and adolesence has come up on three papers most recently jan 08 i think so it is not too likely that this one will come up in june although dont quote me on that (hope it doesnt i dont like it) My predictions are hopeful towards what i would like and following the two year on off rule. But my mistake i misstook the 2009 breakdown of relationships question your right Stex Bomd doubt it will come up again

anyone got essays for pro/anti social behavior please post
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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2009 is such a wierd exam year its breaking trends so its hard to tell. ugh the mech paper was unlike anything before and physics was diff too. Hope its not part of the new A level standard increase..
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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Here is one on love if it helps. Please post other essays to compare.

Outline and evaluate TWO OR MORE psychological explanations of love (24marks)

Triangular love theory
According to the triangular love theory (Sternberg 1986) love consists of three separate components, passion, intimacy and commitment. Passion refers to the physical arousal and sexual consummation of the relationship, Intimacy consists of the feelings of closeness that exists between the two people such as care and support while Commitment is the decision to remain with just one person in a long term monogamous relationship. Sternberg believed that the type and strength of a couples love can be determined by the strength of each individual part of the triangle with the ideal ‘balanced’ relationship being one where all three parts are equal in strength. This is however hard to achieve and thus different typologies of love occur when imbalances are present in different variations such as infatuation which is strong passion but low intimacy and commitment. Sternberg believed that a person has two different triangles, one being the ideal fantasy relationship and the other being the real life relationships.

Sternberg found (1988) that the most successful relationships viewed in a study were ones where the two triangles (fantasy and reality) were the most similar. Initially a limitation of this study is that it shows what type of love a person may feel but does not explain how we get there. To counteract this criticism Sternberg expanded his theory to include modelling of perceived ideas of love from an early age, based on media, experience and parents and family. Sternberg (1998) found that students interviewed about romantic expectations followed 25 typical love stories (eg the prince and princess rescue) which supports the theory of modelled relationships.
Sternbergs theory has been based on extensive qualitative interviews with Yale students which creates sample bias but outside support has been given by Fehr (1988) who found that when asked to describe love pps fit a mould consisting of three factors similar to Sternbergs.
Sternberg found that ‘happy’ relationships have balanced triangles although this can be questioned by his use of only western participants. In the west it is assumed that love is a prerequisite for marriage and that lack of leads to failure but in non western societies a successful relationship is based more on commitment and love can develop afterwards. Sternbergs theory has been criticised for being over complicated when compared to Hatfield and Walsters three factor theory.

Love as attachment process

Hazan and Shaver (1987) based there love model on the attachment theory (Bowlby 1969) which states that attachment styles develop in response to the care an individual is given as an infant. Confident infants tend to have caring and responsive primary caregivers while the opposite can be said for anxious infants. Based on this Ainsworth (1967) identified three types of attachment styles, secure, insecure resistant and insecure avoidant. Ainsworth stated that future relationships would be based on attachments formed as an infant.
Hazan and Shaver expanded Bowlbys attachment theory and applied attachment types to adult relationships, such as secure individuals being trusting and positive in a relationship while insecure avoidant individuals would be pessimistic and fearful of love. Ideologies of love are therefore based on the memories of attachment to their primary caregiver.

Hazan and Shaver (1987) tested their theory through the use of a love quiz and found that adults with secure infant attachments had ideas of love being ‘enduring’ and were found to be less likely to be divorced while insecure adults felt that true love was rare and relationships are harder to manage. More support comes from Feeney and Noller (1990) who found that securely attached pps had the most long term enduring romantic relationships in comparison to insecure.
The limitations of Hazan and Shavers research is that it is retrospective and thus adults memories can be flawed which leads to inaccurate conclusions. Although the use of longitudinal studies such as McCarthys (1999) study of women from infancy to adulthood, recorded similar findings. Kagan (1984) questioned the theory on the basis that infants can be born with different personalities that would in turn affect both infant attachment and later in life the romantic attachments they form with others. This would explain the continuity of research findings although it does contradict the love as an attachment process theory making it potentially obsolete.
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free_the_mind
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I'm just doing PYA5

Psychopathology
1) Anxiety Disorders/ Depression

Approaches
2) Culture bias/ Human ethics
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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awsome same ones as me.

sorry if ive monopolised the thread, im in mad writing mode. can try get a PYA5 essay up by tomo if you like?
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Zoombini
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does anyone know what came up in Jan 09?
Im doing relationships, biological rhythms and animal cognition.
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XPwincessX
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for pya5..i'm doin psychopathology

wht are the predictions...my teacher predicted that anxiety disorders is the most likely one 2 *** up..coz depression has come up loads of tyms
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CHRISCREAVEN1990
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(Original post by Zoombini)
does anyone know what came up in Jan 09?
Im doing relationships, biological rhythms and animal cognition.
for jan 2009 i know that it was about breakdown and dissolution of relationships but im not doing bio rythms or animal cognition so cant remember those ones sorry
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Falcon_2007
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(Original post by CHRISCREAVEN1990)
Gender and adolesence has come up on three papers most recently jan 08 i think so it is not too likely that this one will come up in june although dont quote me on that (hope it doesnt i dont like it) My predictions are hopeful towards what i would like and following the two year on off rule. But my mistake i misstook the 2009 breakdown of relationships question your right Stex Bomd doubt it will come up again

anyone got essays for pro/anti social behavior please post
As there are only 3 topics in developmental psychology (Gender, Adolesence and Personality) and since personality came up in June 08 and Jan 09 twice in a row ... it highly unlikely to turn up again for the third time and keeping in mind it's the last time we'll be doing this spec. so there is a chance that for the developmental section it'll either be gender or adolesence ...

They also asked biorhythms twice in a row (June 08 and Jan 09 ), so even if they repeat one of them again for the third time it's very unlikely that they'll do same with second question also ...
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midnightoil
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Biological rhytms have come up twice in a row now so I think you can probably rule them out (don't take my word for it though).
I think breakdown of relationships came up in january 2009 aswell..

I think anxiety disorders for psychopathology is not a bad shout..
I think for psychopathology I'm going to learn everything but I really hope it is on depression or schizophrenia..
Have you by any chance got anything on anxiety disorders?

I havent looked at PYA5 with too much detail yet, I'm focussing on PYA4..
Evolution is so hard and annoying..

ALSO HAS ANYONE GOT ANY ESSAYS / NOTES ON DREAMING?
I am seriously bad on that bit..

Good luck everyone
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ImranAdan
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:woo: So then Exam is on the 15th of June and i haven't started Jack, I'm i F***** or is there any realistic chance of actually scrapping a B? any tips you guys could give me anything regarding last minute preps
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