Lukes' Three Faces of PowerWatch
The first face is the open face. So that when decisions are made, people quite clearly understand how and why decisions are made. The process is open to scrutiny at its various stages and the exercise of power is therefore legitimised.
Second face is secretive face. Power is exercised behind closed doors. Those who have the power to set the political agenda also have the power to determine what can, and more importantly, cannot be discussed. Power is not just about decision making. It is about preventing decisions being made or reducing the choices which are considered.
Third face is manipulation. Those with power can persuade others that they are right.
Power of Knowledge
Power to influence of Behaviour
Kind of old thread, but I don't really get it either. Could someone contribute to this? I would really aprecciate it
The classic idea of political power, as in the government has power to make decisions. Most political actions are centred around gaining this type of power towards your cause. You contest elections to get this power, you lobby you MP to get them to use this power in a particular way.
All about agendas, it's a less obvious sort of power. It is to consider what decisions were never made.
The decisions the government are making are about particular things, these things are the agenda. The agenda does not come to be at random so their is power in getting things on/off the agenda.
So like the environment never used to be on the agenda (simplified example coming up). There was in many places big firms who damage the environment putting pressure of government/media not to pay any attention to campaigners. The campaigners were trying to raise public awareness so people asked questions, wanted to have it in manifestos, the media had an area of interest to respond to etc. So between the campaigners and firms there was a 2nd face power struggle to decide what we talk about/care about/make decisions about.
Manipulation, in particular manipulating people's interests. You need to form interests somehow.A Marxist example is the easiest to give, it gets across the idea even if you don't agree with the Marxist perspective.
The working class' conception of their own interest has been manipulated by capitalists so that they think capitalism is in their own interest rather than communism. Marketing, education, frames of reference etc all convince the working class that having money/things is desirable and that capitalism provides everyone the opportunity to do that.
It's an intangible thing so it's kind of difficult to give a more precise example