Edexcel Psychology A2 - Research Methods 09/06/09

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Redpanda91
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Hi everyone,

Who is sitting this exam on Tuesday? I'm doing Research methods and Child Psychology... so nervous, particularly about research methods! I'm really struggling with stats tests.

Was wondering if someone could explain how I'd answer this question

(g) The researcher set the level of significance for this test at
p>0.05. Explain what this means. (1)

I'm not sure how to go about answering it!

Also, what is time sampling and event sampling?

Thanks
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worthers
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P>0.05 simply means there is a probably of above 5% of the experiment being due to chance rather than the manipulation of the IV.
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Redpanda91
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(Original post by worthers)
P>0.05 simply means there is a probably of above 5% of the experiment being due to chance rather than the manipulation of the IV.
Thanks :smile:
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ilikepiesandstuff
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Anyone got any past papers?
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Redpanda91
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Here are some practise questions my teacher gave me. I have got past papers but they're printed, and I'd have to scan them in. I might do if I have time.

Question 1

A researcher is interested in altruistic behaviour (behaviour which helps others). They ask twenty volunteer participants to rate the likelihood of helping someone to cross the road. Participants are first shown the picture of a younger person and asked whether they would be ‘highly likely’ or ‘highly unlikely’ to help tha person. Next they are shown the picture of an older person and asked the same question. The answers are recorded. The researcher has predicted that the results will be broadly in line with previous research which suggests that older people are more likely to be helped than younger people.

Questions
(a) Identify the experimental design used here (1)
(b) Explain one strength and one weakness of this design (4)
(c) Identify the independent and dependent variable (2)
(d) Write a directional experimental hypothesis for this study (2)
(e) Name the sampling method used in this study (1)
(f) Explain one strength and one weakness of this sampling method (4)
(g) The researcher set the level of significance for this test at
p>0.05. Explain what this means. (1)
(h) Identify which statistical test should have been used here (1)
(i) Explain why this was the correct test to use (3)
(j) Identify two extraneous variables which may have affected
the outcome of this study and explain how the researcher
could have controlled them (4)


Question 2

A researcher is interested in the relationship between watching television and recognising celebrity. There are 10 participants for the study and at the start of the study each one is asked how long they watch television each week. The participants are then given a series of celebrity photographs and asked to name the person in the picture. The answers to the two questions are recorded.

Questions:

(a) What method of research is being used here? (1)
(b) Explain one strength and one weakness of this method (4) .
(c) Which statistical test should be used to analyse the data? (1)
(d) Explain why this is right test to use (3)
(e) The study found a correlation of +0.9 between the two
sets of scores. Explain what this means (3)
(f) Identify two ways in which the study could be improved
if it was repeated (4)

Question 2 (2)

You and a friend are interested in how people behave when they are taking part in martial arts. Do they show signs of genuine aggression and/or anger? You arrange to observe people doing judo during an ordinary session of a local martial arts group.

Questions

(a) What type of observation is being used here? (1).
(b) Explain a strength and a weakness of this type of observation (4)
(c) Before the observation you will have needed to have devised some
behavioural categories. With reference to this example,
explain what these are. (2)
(d) Would you have used time sampling or event sampling for your
observation? Explain your answer (2)
(e) You were going to do the observation with a friend but they cannot
make it and you have to do it alone. How might this affect the
reliability of your observation? (2)
(f) Would you use qualitative or quantitative data to record your
observations? Explain your answer. (2)
(g) What is one thing you should have done before the observation to
make it more ethical? (2)
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Redpanda91
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(Original post by ilikepiesandstuff)
Anyone got any past papers?
Me! See above :p:
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junglegirl
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does anyone have a content analysis describe and evaluate model answer?
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Redpanda91
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I don't sorry But can someone explain to me exactly what content analysis is all about? I'm a bit hazy on it!
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junglegirl
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(Original post by Redpanda91)
I don't sorry But can someone explain to me exactly what content analysis is all about? I'm a bit hazy on it!
lol...i got a feeling this is going to come up


Describe
Content analysis is a quantative research method that can be used to examine the number of certain key words or the language used in a variety of media, it can be used t explore the content of literature, speech patterns, television shows or newspaper articles or the investigate trends in presentation, tone Conclusions care drawn from the analysis about the role of these medial role in affecting our behaviour of the perception of certain activities. Robertson identified content analysis as a 6 stage process:
1. Ask a specific question
2. Choose the sampling strategy
3. Define the recording unit
4. Construct categories for analysis
5. Test the coding sample on material and assess reliability
6. Conduct the content analysis


Evaluate content analysis
strenghts
•High ecological validity as it is real and not from an artificial therefore making it easy to apply to real life situations
•Easily replicable as the data analysed is secondary and as long as the material used is recorded then it can be easily obtained again, and the analysis can be repeated the verify results
•As documents are archived making it a cheap and easy longitudinal study to carry out

weaknesses
•Content analysis is open to researcher biases, although coding is used; it is up to the researcher to classify certain behaviours, into their required categories, however this can be overcome by using inter rater reliability, where more than one researcher agrees on the classification of behaviour
•Cause and effect cannot be establish when researching the content of secondary information, although links may be drawn, we cannot firmly say one causes another as there are too many confounding variables that may impact the results.

sorry if there are any silly grammar/spelling mistakes, i just made it now, as a 12 mark question:rolleyes:
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Redpanda91
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(Original post by junglegirl)
Content Analysis...
Thanks! I did know what it was I just had a panic moment there :p: We only wrote about a paragraph on it! Luckily there aren't any 12 mark questions in research methods, otherwise I'd be scared :eek:
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junglegirl
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(Original post by Redpanda91)
Thanks! I did know what it was I just had a panic moment there :p: We only wrote about a paragraph on it! Luckily there aren't any 12 mark questions in research methods, otherwise I'd be scared :eek:
there can be a 12mark :confused: or maybe 5 and 5 split and seen as it is the last year and content analysis has never some up i think its pretty likely.
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Redpanda91
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(Original post by junglegirl)
there can be a 12mark :confused: or maybe 5 and 5 split and seen as it is the last year and content analysis has never some up i think its pretty likely.
There can? Oh.. I looked at the past paper that's on the edexcel site and there's no 12 mark on there :sad:
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emma.191
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(Original post by junglegirl)
there can be a 12mark :confused: or maybe 5 and 5 split and seen as it is the last year and content analysis has never some up i think its pretty likely.
You are brilliant!
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a12
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how did you find the exam??
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a12
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i really struggled on the two- research methods and child- what i never revised for came up
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a12
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i left out so many questions! dreading the results
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jayrob91
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some of the questions have had alot of critizism...the main one in the research methods section

" would the researchers accept the null hypothesis in this study?" ( or along those lines )

problem was the study never stated any hypothesis... so we had to guess what a hypothesis could have been and infer the null hypothesis from that :s

just a little bit annoying.
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junglegirl
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omg the paper was amazing! i loved it! i knew the answer to everything! ahhhh i actually laughed out loud in the exam! both researched methods and child! were awsum! and my predictions were right oh yeaaaaaah!!!!
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junglegirl
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(Original post by emma.191)
You are brilliant!
im guesing you took my advice how did you find the rest of the paper?
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Redpanda91
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(Original post by junglegirl)
im guesing you took my advice how did you find the rest of the paper?
We're not allowed to discuss it yet It's because people all over the world can be sitting the exam still, and we can talk after 11pm or 12 I can't remember. But I got 10 warning points once for discussing an edexcel exam!
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