GPP Standard File Formats – can be opened by any application (Graphics are JPEG, BITMAP… Text are ASCII, RTF… Sound are MP3, WMA…)

Customising HCI – Windows can be customised (change colour schemes, font sizes, mouse speed etc) Applications can be customised (adding or removing items from toolbars)

Data Linkage – image you have a pie chart in a spreadsheet and paste it into a slideshow or a word processing document. DYNAMIC data linkage is when if the original pie chart is amended the pasted one is automatically updated. STATIC linkage is when the pasted one is not automatically updated

Data Protection Act – the storage of personal data on a computer. The company must keep it secure and up to date. You have the right to see and correct your own data. Exceptions are the police, military and income tax

Data Controller – the company who own the database

Data User – the person employed by the company

Data Subject – anyone who’s information is in the database

Computer Misuse Act – Hacking, spreading viruses and committing fraud with a computer

Copyright Designs and Patents Act – copying other people’s software, music etc without paying for it or getting permission

Standard Letter – a letter that is the same for everyone except the blanks left for personal information such as address or bank balance

Mail Merge – using a database to complete the blanks in the standard letter to produce many letters (mail shot)

Template – a document with the layout and placeholders already created for you – just insert your text and graphics

OCR – Optical character recognition – used if you are scanning text so that you can edit it in a word processor

IF functions - = IF (B2 >=50, “Pass” , “Fail”) Text needs to go in quotes “ “

Absolute Referencing – used if we need to replicate the formula and don’t want a cell reference to change eg = IF (B2 >= $A$1, “Pass” , “Fail”) $A$1 is ABSOLUTE and B2 is RELATIVE referencing

Computed field – a field in a spreadsheet that contains a formula / does a calculation

Database output – the output can be formatted (often called a report) perhaps to change the layout or only output certain fields

Crop – to remove part of a graphic

Text wrap – NOT THE SAME AS WORD WRAP – this is where text flows around a graphic

Hotspot – an area of a webpage that has an action when your mouse pointer moves over it

Expert Systems – a system the uses expert knowledge to diagnose problems – less wages to pay, can access them 24 hours per day, less errors etc

File transfer – files can be transferred by attaching them to emails

Multi-access – a computer system that can be accessed by many people at the same time

Network Interface Card – hardware your computer needs to connect to a LAN

Client Server Network – a network where many functions are controlled by a central computer (the server). The server controls backups, security and upgrades

Netiquette – good manners while using a network – do not SHOUT, not too many attachments, don’t post abusive messages etc

ISP – Internet Service Provider – the company that supplies your connection to the internet eg Virgin Media. May also supply email accounts, security and web space

Search Engine – a special web page that looks for your keywords in a database of web sites

Freeware – software you can use for as long as you like for nothing

Shareware – software with a 30 day trial then you need to pay to keep using it

Commercial – software you need to buy before you can use it

Mobile Internet Technologies – smart phones, PDAs, Laptops with WiFi

Video Conferencing – using a web cam (or digital video camera) and microphone to hold meetings with people in other offices. Saves travelling time and expenses

Automated Systems Adaptability – robots would be no good if they could only do one thing. They must be able to be reprogrammed to do different jobs / make different products. It should also be possible to change their tools

Analogue – data that has many values. Usually data OUTSIDE the computer is analogue eg sensors, sound

Digital – data that has only 2 value (1 and 0). Usually data inside a computer or CD player is digital

A to D converter – converts an analogue signal to a digital signal eg storing sound

D to A converter – converts a digital signal to an analogue signal eg playing a CD

Control language – a special high level language that has extra commands for moving the robot

ROM software – a machine’s control program is usually stored on ROM chips as they cannot be lost or changed

Embedded system – a small computer contained within a machine – eg a washing machine

Intelligent Robot – a robot that can sense its environment and make decisions – will have many sensors, processors and memory

Factories – modern factories are very different as there are more machines and fewer people – therefore companies can save money on heat, light, canteens etc

Systems Analysis – before spending millions installing robots a company should employ a systems analyst to recommend which hardware and software to use

Commercial Data Processing Smart cards – can store more data than a magnetic stripe card. Contain a processor

Validation – making sure data is sensible eg month should be 1 to 12 Examples are check digit, length check, range check

Verification – making sure data is accurate – done by double entry

Multi-user – a database that can be accessed by many people at the same time eg a bank or airline

Fraud – customers need to be careful about the risk of fraud, especially with online bank accounts

Computer Systems Translator – the program that turns high level languages into machine code

Compiler – turns the whole program into a new machine code file. This will then run very quickly but is harder to find errors

Interpreter – this turns the program into machine code line by line at the same time as it is running. Runs slowly but good for finding errors

Portability – software should be able to run on different types of computers

Operating system tasks – provide HCI, file management (Disks), memory management (RAM)

Interactive systems – a computer system that responds quickly to the user eg a cashline terminal

Device drivers – programs that must be installed to allow new hardware to operate correctly. If hardware is not working it is often the device driver that is faulty or not installed

Hierarchical filing systems – this is when files can be organised into folders. This also allows people to use the same names for their files if they are in different folders

Sequential access – tapes use this, you cannot go directly to the file you need – slow

Random (Direct) access – disks use this – you can go directly to the file you need – fast

Graphics calculations – You will be given a resolution (eg 300 x 200). Simply multiply the numbers together (300 x 200 = 60000). This is the number of BITS. Divide by 8 for BYTES (60000 / 8 = 7500 BYTES)

Processor – the brain of the computer – contains 3 important parts (ALU for calculations, registers for storage and control unit for fetching)

Memory locations – the RAM is divided up into many small compartments, each with its own address. The size of each location is called the WORD SIZE (measured in bits)

Virtual Reality – simulating an environment using a headset with 2 screens and 2 speakers. A DATA GLOVE is used to interact with the environment

Sound card – the hardware in your computer that captures and plays sound

Graphics card – the hardware in your computer that displays images and video on the monitor

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