• Higher Human Biology

== Course Introduction ==


These are notes designed to cover some of the more complicated aspects of the Higher Human Biology course (sometimes known as "Higher Human" or "Human Bio"). Like any other higher, it requires a lot of work and time, so make up a good revision strategy!

There are a few parts in the course where knowledge from SG/INT 2/HIGHER Chemistry is required, but it mostly just involves bonding/structure. At the beginning of each unit summary, I'll include any information that is required from chemistry, but don't panic! It is very basic.

The 3 units in the course are:

Unit 1 - Cell Function & Inheritance
Unit 2 - Continuation of Life
Unit 3 - Populations & Environment

In order to pass the course, you must achieve passes in all unit assessments and the final exam.



Unit 1 - Cell Function and Inheritance

Introduction

In this unit, you study:
Proteins
Enzymes
Sources of Energy
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
Transfer of Energy
Cell membrane and transport of materials
Cellular response in defence
Viruses
Chromosomes and DNA replication
Meiosis
Monohybrid inheritance
Sex-linked and polygenic inheritance
Mutations and chromosomal abnormalities
Genetic screening and counselling

As you can see, this is a LOT of information to handle. This topic basically covers aspects such as biochemistry, cellular activity, Immunology, genetics and implications of biology in society. This unit contrasts from the other Units as Unit 2 is more anatomy based, and Unit 3 is a mix of psychology, sociology and geography, so most people either find it boring or interesting.

What do I need to remember from standard grade?
Cells & Enzymes
Respiration
Inheritance
Test for sugars

What chemistry terms do I need to know?
Hydrogen Bonding - weak forces, normally O-H bonds, represented by a dotted line (-----).
Covalent Bonding - Strong bonding which involves the sharing of a pair of electrons.
Monosaccharide, Disaccharide and Polysaccharide - Units of sugars. "Mono" means one, so it's a single unit sugar (glucose or fructose), "Di" means two, so it's a double unit sugar (maltose, lactose, sucrose) and "Poly" means many, so it's made up of many sugar molecules (Glycogen, Starch and Cellulose).
Oxidation - Loss of hydrogen. } OIL Oxidation Is Loss
Reduction - Gain of hydrogen. } RIG Reduction Is Gain.

What are some common exam questions?

Structure of DNA</br> Protein Synthesis</br> Respiration</br> Monohybrid Crosses/Other Crosses</br> Virus Types & Types of Immunity</br>

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