view those migrations only after initial victories in Iraq and Syria. Migrations after thought unleashed
promise of wealth and of land in conquered domains. Hunger and greed rather than religiouszeal.
weakness Byzantine and Sasanid Persia due to prolonged wars luckypresence of good generals and administrators on Arab side.
- Canard - Attributes much to dissatisfaction of
people in Syria and Iraq rejects Arabs driven out of Arabia by misery
yes booty, yes economic factors encourage people to the front, but not
driving forward. Would havestopped in Syria and Iraq and not continued.
- Gabrieli - was seething with arms and armed
men: the victors, no less than the vanquished, needed an outlet for their
surplus energies Certainly one of the major incentives for externalconquest may have lain in this explosive internal situation.
- Muhammads career and doctrines of Islam
revolutionised both the ideological base and political structures of
Arabian society gave rise of state for first time capable of organizing
and executing an expansionist movement.
Yes accidental factors such as weakness of empires more than an
accident testament to power of human action mobilised by ideologicalcommitment as a force in human affairs
Medina displayed much greater cohesiveness - new ideology and gradual rise
of new institutional and organizational arrangements grew into a new
state much better relations with tribal confederations etc. No problem creating confederationbigger problem maintaining it.
- Muhammad controlled a polity main characteristics
of state: high degree centralisation, primacy of law or centralised higher
authority in the settlement of disputes, institutions to performadministrative functions. 622 for convenience.
power of acting on raw material of Arabian society unleashed expansivemilitary potential of peninsula and generated Islamic conquest
- 1. Unique, Separate and unified Islamic community
umma 2. concept of absolute higher authority 3. concept of centralisationof authority within Umma
- UMMA OR COMMUNITY OF BELIEVERS yes communities
with religious ties such as inks of tribes around Harams etc. But umma universal community of
believers reflecting one universal God.
Main difference monotheism - active rejection of Paganism laid clam
to whole pagan population. Notion umma could and must expand to include entire
Pagan population if not mankind implicit. Conscious or unconscious acceptance of such a notion proves
most supportive of an extended conquest movement with political andreligious character.
believers, take not for your intimates outside yourselves; such men spare
nothing to run you: they year for
you to suffer. Emphasisseparateness leads to social and political centralisation. Umma had to transcend tribal ties
- Set stage for great process of integration and
expansion that we call Islamic conquests Islam provided powerful
ideological underpinning for rise of state institutions and for
interfering with community that extended beyond the tribe. There is no God but God, and Muhammadis the apostle of God.
ideology that gave accomplishments durability and made them the foundation
of the conquest movement. Discernthem in features of the state
of a centralised tax regime formed culmination of Muhammads long processof political consolidation.
of career Muhammad had created a new state in Western Arabia constructed
by traditional means bound together by ideological and institutional
factors that allowed it to transcend usual forms of political organizationin tribal confederations.
- Hitherto unknown durability and centralised control
over subjects- by prevalence eof overriding concept of law, focusing of
political authority in God, the umma and Muhammad, systemisation of taxand justice, establishment network of administrative agents.
preaches that nomadic life incompatible with Islam yes Muslims but take
another oath of allegiance. We see
sedentary groups begin seen as more powerful and Islamic that nomadic
groups change in power dynamic: can be no Islam to those who do notsettle
- 3 kinds of domination:
- Hegemony of Muslims over non-Muslims
- Dominance of essentially Hijazi ruling elite over other tribal groups
- Hegemony of a sophisticated sedentary elite and their state over nomadic groups
the way to the front, the core forces so assembled were also able to raise
further recruits as they passed through the territories of various tribes
not just hordes organized contingents with objectives and generalmovements caused by the ruling elites.
- impetus to political unification and
centralization implicit in Islams concept of a universal, unique God, ofa overriding moral authority established by God.
ties good way of identifying where soldiers were and what they were up topay and military organization.
nomadic problems recruiting their finest and most dangerous warriors into
the Arabian armies thus increasing military power, whilst reducing real
power of nomads in the desert. Ata
or stipend more of a reward for settling down. Umar The sooner one settles,the sooner one receives a stipend
of garrison towns important - yes
defence against Byzantine and Sasanians and springboard for further
campaign but also keep an eye on nomadic Syrian an Arabian populace. Ringing remaining nomads in desert withforts garrison in alKufa central Iraq
conquests first and foremost product of organizational breakthrough ofproportions unparalleled in Arabian world.
succeeded because able to organize effective conquest movement impact
new religion of Islam which provided ideological underpinnings for
remarkable breakthrough in social organisations truly an Islamic
movement Islam set of beliefs preached by Muhammad social and
political ramifications sparked whole integration process and henceultimate cause of conquests success.
seen as creator of perfect welfare state presented by God for embracinghis cause initially emigrants subsidized by the government.
- expand and survive
- only toward end of Umayadd period that Byzantines
able to face Muslims on anything approaching equal basis. Little incentive for sending diplomatic
missions to establish modus vivendi with other powers to establish
permanent relations who were soon to be defeated and incorporated withinDaral-Islam
Arabs were excellent warriors, culture that prized personal valour. Groups
of Bedouin significant threat but united Arab groups such as confederate
allies of Romans more formidable Ghassanids as effective in pitchedbattle as any other Persian troops.
broader cultural differences Monophysiote used vernacular and
essentially rural powerful lay supporters in Syria Ghassnids
significant proportion population alienated from ruling class culturally
and religion seen as heretical whilst did not cooperate with Islamic
conquests little enthusiasm for Byzantine cause - parts of Syria
actually welcomed no where near as significant resistance as inAnatolia, Armenia or Fars in southern Iran.
term weakness revealed by catastrophes following death Maurice 602 aided
by Khursau II Perez peace helped form border harmony Avars and Slavs
Phocas incompetent usurper pretext Khursau to invade and avenge
benefactors death catastrophic effects Antioch (613) and Jerusalem
(614) all Syria and Palestine, plus Egypt, much Anatolian highlands
destruction Anatolian highlands. Phocas replaced by Heraclius who led
brilliant campaigns against Persians 628 enters Ctesiphon Persianconquests Syrian and Egypt restored to Byzantine control
war accelerated and confirmed tendencies of previous centuries
demographic and urban decline. Syrian borderlands deserted to less chaotic
areas, generations inhabitants grown up without any sense of Empire
little residual loyalty. Little
time to repair defences or self-government. Syria attempts to solve religious issue Monophytism and
Diophytism Monotheletism Egypt militant dio bishop appointed
systematic alienation of population, little Christian unity. If Heraclius enjoyed fruits of victory
for a few decades new structure in near East perhaps Islamic armies
arrived when Byzantine rule was recent, shaky and widely resented. Islamic conquest product of declineByzantine civilisation as well as blow itself.
- 631 Heraclius entrusts Cryrus, bishop of Phasis in
Caucasus with patriarch Alexandria persecuted Monophysites of Coptic
church alienated much population from Roman rule, more so than Syriawhere some Orthodox.
Time to re-establish complicated structure ofadministrative and personal ties which bound the provinces to the capital.
Persia vindication of the Christian Empire require time to recover from
strains of war and set about realising the opportunities of the post warworld.
provincials or imperial government would have good reason to thinkbeginning of exceptional crisis transform near East.
control slowly being reconstructed after 20 year absence generations
without experience of imperial rule much Palestine, Syria and
Transjordan effctiely self-governing under bishops and local notables 0
Muslim Arabs must have appeared as a desirable continuation of stateaffairs.
ability to strike back Romans achieve victory over Persia with a Turkish
alliance making supreme effort to raise an army, despite loss of
empires most productive regions if Herakleios eastern campaign failed
627-8 no further stocks of church treasure to melt down and it would besome time before the attempt could be repeated.
by continuing Arab invasions and raids by sea and land, cut off from main
trade routes of Near East which now focussed on Syria, Egypt and Iraqempires economy rapidly fell away from levels of 600.
coins, although common in Muslim territory, virtually disappear within
empire. Red-slip fine wares from North Africa no longer found long
tradition of manufacture and distribution had come to an end. General lack of pottery implies
disappearance centres of production and d of long-distance tradingnetworks.
capital never ceased to be a relatively large city a centre of
government and of some commerce.
Mango evidence of decay. C
early middle ages centre of Roman world largest and wealthiest cities.
More important from 600 onwards as no other major cities preservationessential to empires survival
- Conquests made easier by exhaustion of Byzantine
and Sasanian Empire due to prolonged warfare, confusion that reigned in
Sasanian ruling house, disruption caused by recent enemy occupation of
Syria and Iraq, destruction wrought by immense floods in Southern Iraq,
disaffection for religious and other reasons, convenience of inner linesof communication that Muslims enjoyed
- Dynastic rule of Sasanians whilst stopping early
usurpers who could not gain respect Bahram Chobin (590-1) in years of
Kurso II Pavez death difficult for sovereign to emerge to 628-32 ten
different Kings by time Yazdgard III found hiding and made King Muslimarmies attacking the Empire.
- Mazdakite uprising of late 5th and early
6th century religious movement with strong social overtones
abolition property and class distinction. Kavad I 488 531 backed
it! Symbolises rare insight into
social discontents in Iran left an ideological legacy for 9thcentury uprising in Azerbaijan.
- Two levels of Persian aristocracy upper aristocracy
consisted of a few great families suspicion of great magnates, see
Bahram Chbin Khursaus ill-advised decision to abolish Lakhmid bufferkingdom of al-Hira which guarded desert frontier of Iraq.
- Mixture religious beliefs reflects ethnic and
linguistic diversity Kurds Dalymites n Iraq, Lurs, Baluchis Iraq
mostly Aramiac, arabs in al-Jazira and al-Hira Persians confine tocities.
- Long term weaknesses exacerbated by short-term
problems violent and unpredictable policies of Khursau II Parvez and
struggle for succession - Khursau II no great administrator
centralisation alienated monarchy, ten yr rebellion Khuran executed
southern governor. Determination
for authority led to arrest and execution of al-Numan last of Lakhmid kings
of Hira replaced by Persian governor.
These problems les to attack 602 disastrous to both empire
initially successful but comeback takes Ctesiphon extensive floods and
resistance weakened by plague Kursaus failings as a military commander led
to murderous feud amongst sons ruined and bitterly divided notsurprising that Persian defeated, but they fought so well.
- Byzantine and Sassanain undergone far-reaching and
fundamental changes in century before Islam social, economic and
structural changes like increased importance pastoral people and absence
civic autonomy associated with development of Islamic society under way
before 6th century.
Muslim conquest breaking up conservative world order far from truth
entered an already changing world and shaped and accelerated existing
trends. Dynamic development ofIslamic world understood against this background.
- much larger Persian army 12,000 much larger Persia
army under Rustam battle of Qadisiyya decisive Persian host totally
defeated and shortly afterwards Persian capital (Ctesiphon) occupied and
occupied by victorious army 637
-victory at Jalula forced Yazdgird III to withdraw to Isfahan
areas - secures position of
Muslims, small groups of whom now took control of town and villages ofIraq as far north as Mosul.
- Persian resistance ineffective with loss of Iraq
Persians lose wealthiest province and capital Ctesiphon political centre
of the empire. Ctesiphon and
Sasanian court privded powerful political and cultural focus beyond
religious alliance as long as that survived Persian empire could cope
with disasters such as death and defeat of shah Perox at hands Hepthalites
in 484 Roman invasion 627 8 comparative ethnic unity of Iranian
plateau and mountainous barrier it offers invader from west counted forvery little as Arabs hunted down last shahs. Constantinople 1200 k from Damascus.
Sasanian army at Dhu Qar turn 7th century
unified group of nomads could overcome army of settled folk. Impetus Islam not under-rated in brilliantvictories for Arabs. unity as well as inspiration and drive to conquest.